MIMO techniques in WiMAX and LTE: a feature overview

IEEE Communications Magazine (Impact Factor: 4.01). 06/2010; 48(5):86 - 92. DOI: 10.1109/MCOM.2010.5458368
Source: IEEE Xplore


IEEE 802.16m and 3GPP LTE-Advanced are the two evolving standards targeting 4G wireless systems. In both standards, multiple-input multiple-output antenna technologies play an essential role in meeting the 4G requirements. The application of MIMO technologies is one of the most crucial distinctions between 3G and 4G. It not only enhances the conventional point-to-point link, but also enables new types of links such as downlink multiuser MIMO. A large family of MIMO techniques has been developed for various links and with various amounts of available channel state information in both IEEE 802.16e/m and 3GPP LTE/LTE-Advanced. In this article we provide a survey of the MIMO techniques in the two standards. The MIMO features of the two are compared, and the engineering considerations are depicted.

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Available from: Qinghua Li, Sep 30, 2015
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    • "The MIMO is a technology to enhance the overall networks performance. MIMO is based on the use of multiple antennas at both the base station and the UE, and it employs several techniques including spatial multiplexing, beamforming, and pre-coding [7]. In the 3GPP LTE standard [8] [9], the BS supports 1, 2, 4, and 8 transmission antennas, and the UE supports 2, 4, 8 reception antennas. "
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    ABSTRACT: The opportunities and challenges of 5G rapidly gain great attention from academics, industries, and governments. International standard organizations such as 3GPP and ITU, have initiated working groups for establishing standards of a faster and more efficient next generation (called the 5G) wireless network. One of the advances of the 5G beyond the previous standards is its ambitious performance requirements, such as high peak transmission rate, high spectrum utilization, and high energy efficiency. A promising solution answers part of performance requirement of the 5G, especially for stationary or low velocity users, is an ultra dense small cell wireless network with massive multiple input multiple output (MIMO) antennas and MU-MIMO technique for improving spectrum utilization. Moreover, the 5G network should allow heterogeneous wireless device communication, perform the cooperative mechanism for enhancing the transmission diversity, use cognitive radio technology for spectrum reuse, and consider energy efficiency. This paper lists several resource management issues in ultra-dense 5G smallcell networks. Keywords—Resource management; 5G; ultra dense smallcell; multiple input multiple output (MIMO) I. INTRODUCTION 4G is an ITU specification that is currently being developed for broadband mobile capabilities. 4G technologies would enable IP-based voice, data and streaming multimedia at higher speeds and offer at least 100 Mbit/s with high mobility and up to 1GBit/s with low mobility. Moreover, 4G is an IP-based and packet-switched evolution of 3G technologies (such as WCDMA, HSDPA, CDMA2000 and EVDO) that uses voice communications. A number of technologies considered to be 4G standards include the IEEE 802.16m [1] [2], Ultra Mobile Broadband (UMB) and Long Term Evolution-Advanced (LTE-A) [3] standard. Recently, organizations such as 3GPP, ITU, WiMAX Forum, and Small Cell Forum have started the 5G related standards from different aspects. The 5G is a novel design paradigm rapidly gaining wide global attention from academia, industries, and governments. The characteristics of 5G are demanded, such as achieving 10Gbps peak data rate, deploying ultra-dense small cells, allowing heterogeneous wireless devices communications (Machine-to-Machine; M2M), accessing different radio access technology,
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    • "Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) technologies are currently being adopted in many wireless communication standards such as fourth generation (4G) cellular networks [1]. The main limiting factor in multi-user MIMO systems is the multiple-access interference (MAI). "
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    ABSTRACT: We consider the downlink of a single-cell multi-user MIMO system in which the base station makes use of $N$ antennas to communicate with $K$ single-antenna user equipments (UEs) randomly positioned in the coverage area. In particular, we focus on the problem of designing the optimal linear precoding for minimizing the total power consumption while satisfying a set of target signal-to-interference-plus-noise ratios (SINRs). To gain insights into the structure of the optimal solution and reduce the computational complexity for its evaluation, we analyze the asymptotic regime where $N$ and $K$ grow large with a given ratio and make use of recent results from large system analysis to compute the asymptotic solution. Then, we concentrate on the asymptotically design of heuristic linear precoding techniques. Interestingly, it turns out that the regularized zero-forcing (RZF) precoder is equivalent to the optimal one when the ratio between the SINR requirement and the average channel attenuation is the same for all UEs. If this condition does not hold true but only the same SINR constraint is imposed for all UEs, then the RZF can be modified to still achieve optimality if statistical information of the UE positions is available at the BS. Numerical results are used to evaluate the performance gap in the finite system regime and to make comparisons among the precoding techniques.
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    • "To explore spectrum sharing opportunities in dense networks, exploiting spatial dynamics with the aid of multiple transmitting antennas is a promising approach. Multi-antenna communication is a key enabling technique in LTE and WiMax standards [17]. The benefit of partial zero-forcing beamforming (ZFBF) has been analyzed for a single network in [18] [19] [20]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Mutual interference is the main bottleneck on the throughput of large random spectrum sharing networks. This work examines the extent to which the performance of such networks can be improved by employing multiple transmitting antennas, without degrading the average performance of individual users. By extending partial zero-forcing beamforming to spectrum sharing networks, the aggregate interference towards primary receivers is reduced, and the desired signals at both primary and secondary receivers are boosted. Considering randomly distributed users and spatially independent Rayleigh fading channels, this work provides upper and lower bounds on the maximum permissible density of secondary transmitters with respect to the numbers of primary and secondary transmitting antennas. The simulation results show that substantial increase in the density of secondary transmitters can be obtained while meeting the outage requirements of the spectrum sharing users.
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