Exploring the potential of MODIS visible and thermal channels in monitoring and assessing the impact of desalination plant discharges in the Arabian Gulf
ABSTRACT Sea water desalination has experienced an unprecedented growth in the GCC countries to meet the ever growing demand of water for household consumption as well as for industrial and agricultural purposes. However, the current technologies used in water desalination are also accompanied by negative environmental impacts especially on the surrounding marine ecosystems. Since major seawater desalination plants are located by the shoreline, the main environmental considerations in desalination are water intakes and sea outfall discharges. We intent through this study to evaluate the potential of current polar orbiting satellites in evaluating the impact of desalination plant discharges, usually used to dispose of brine waste stream, on surrounding ecosystems and water quality. The objective of this project is to develop an automated approach for monitoring water quality and temperature (thermal properties) surrounding the discharges of desalination plants in the UAE coastal areas. Visible and thermal measurements provided by MODIS sensors on board of Terra and Aqua satellites are used in this project. The first four bands (visible) and band 31 & 32 (thermal) were selected. Future multi-spectral data from DubaiSat-1 (5-m resolution) will be also used to detect small changes in water color that cannot be detected with the MODIS data (250 m).
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Mohammed Al-Mualla, Oct 03, 2014
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ABSTRACT: Remote sensing from air-borne and space-borne sensors have proved to be a useful methodfor Suspended Sediment Concentration (SSC) estimation as it provides an instantaneous and synopticview of suspended sediments that would otherwise be unavailable. The reason for the success of remotesensing in such surveys is the strong positive relationship that exists between SSC and remotely sensedwater leaving radiance. To find an algorithm relating SSC to spectral radiance over Bahmansheer RiverEstuary at the North-West of Persian Gulf, a three-month field expedition (April to June 2003) wasconducted while the MODIS sensor on board Terra simultaneously flew over the scene. Fifty sevensamples in fifteen trips were collected. The collected samples were analyzed by measuringconcentration, diameters of the sediment particles and by determining the sediment constituents. Totalconcentration ranged between 30 and 500 mg, the range of particle diameter was from less than amicrometer to more than 20 micrometers and finally it was found that the sediment was composed ofQuartz, Kaolinite, Orthoclase, Chlorite, Calcite, Gypsum, Muscovite, Halite, Anhydrite, Apatite, Biotiteand a low amount of Albite. It is found that the spectral characteristics of these compositions are partlyresponsible for the reflected and/or scattered energy in different bands while the correlation betweenlarger suspended particle concentration and spectral radiance was profound.American Journal of Applied Sciences 07/2008; DOI:10.3844/ajassp.2008.798.804
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ABSTRACT: As on land, plants are the real producers in the sea, and on them depend all marine living resources and the basic sustainability of ecosystems. Primary production is performed by chlorophyll-bearing plants ranging from the tiny phytoplankton to the giant kelps through the process ofphotosynthesis. Zooplankton play an important role as secondary producers, and together with phytoplankton they support the vast assemblages of marine food chain with all their diversity and complexity. Data on chlorophyll pigments, phytoplankton and zooplankton are regarded as a sound basis for environmental appraisal of ecosystems. This paper presents a set of data collected from the Saudi Arabian coastal waters near the desalination plants in AI-Jubail. Materials were collected from six different sites covering the intake and discharge zones during cruises carried out in 1997–1998. Analyses of chlorophyll pigments were made using the spectrophotometric method. Plankton samples were collected using a Nansen plankton net with a mesh size of 75 μ and analyzed following standard procedures. Chlorophyll a, b, c and phaeophytin are the most commonly occurring pigments in seawater. Their concentrations showed wide fluctuation. The phytoplankton community was composed of 35 genera representing the Diatoms, Dinoflagellates and blue- green algae. Zooplankton were composed ofProtozoa, Coelenterata, Ctenophora, Aschelminthes, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata and Chordata. Arthropoda, represented by Cladocera, Copepoda and Crustacean larvae, formed the largest group followed by Chordata. The distribution of phyto- and zooplankton was examined and discussed on a seasonal, annual and inter-annual basis. In terms of species, overall species composition was not affected by plant discharge. The study brings out a greater understanding of the changes experienced by biotic communities as a result of impingement, entrainment and entrapment consequent to water passage through the plant structures. The study reflects the ecological relationships that the phytoplankton and the zooplankton of the region possess with respect to intake and discharge. Further, the study has brought to light a very redeeming feature of the ecosystem to sustain its productivity and planktonic abundance. It was observed that seawater temperature, conductivity and total suspended solids did not act as limiting factors. Besides throwing much light on the little known biological aspects of desalination sites, the data provided constitute a significant addition to the knowledge base of marine living resources in an industrial zone of Gulf coastal waters.Desalination 05/2003; 154(3):291-302. DOI:10.1016/S0011-9164(03)80044-9 · 3.96 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The Red Sea coastal area is characterized by a wealth of natural heritage and resources that present an attractive element for tourism. It is considered one of Egypt's important sectors for sustainable development. At present, this area witnesses an extensive and diverse activities such as; tourism, industry, harbors and fisheries. These anthropogenic activities may significantly impact the sea water quality. In this paper we estimated some water quality parameters in the surface water of the Egyptian sector of the Red Sea by processing MODIS satellite data using SeaDas software. These parameters include: Chlorophyll a concentration (Chl-a), Total Suspended Matter (TSM), and Sea Surface Temperature (SST). A field trip was conducted and several samples were collected representing different coastal water environments for validation and verification. A comparison between the derived estimates and the concurrent bio-optical in situ measurements of the same locations were performed and produced correlative results. Although the retrieved and measured Chl-a and SST are well correlated, the TSM needed an offset for reasonable correspondence. Therefore, the obtained results confirm that the enhanced sensitivity and coverage of MODIS data can provide a significant tool for accurate assessment of water quality parameters.