Characterization of the human properdin gene

Department of Biochemistry, University of Oxford, U.K.
Biochemical Journal (Impact Factor: 4.4). 10/1992; 287 ( Pt 1)(Pt 1):291-7. DOI: 10.1042/bj2870291
Source: PubMed


A cosmid clone containing the complete coding sequence of the human properdin gene has been characterized. The gene is located at one end of the approximately 40 kb cosmid insert and approximately 8.2 kb of the sequence data have been obtained from this region. Two discrepancies with the published cDNA sequence [Nolan, Schwaeble, Kaluz, Dierich & Reid (1991) Eur. J. Immunol. 21, 771-776] have been resolved. Properdin has previously been described as a modular protein, with the majority of its sequence composed of six tandem repeats of a sequence motif of approximately 60 amino acids which is related to the type-I repeat sequence (TSR), initially described in thrombospondin [Lawler & Hynes (1986) J. Cell Biol. 103, 1635-1648; Goundis & Reid (1988), Nature (London) 335, 82-85]. Analysis of the genomic sequence data indicates that the human properdin gene is organized into ten exons which span approximately 6 kb of the genome. TSRs 2-5 are coded for by discrete, symmetrical exons (phase 1-1), which supports the hypothesis that modular proteins evolved by a process involving exon shuffling. TSR1 is also coded for by a discrete exon, but the boundaries are asymmetrical (phase 2-1). The sequence coding for the sixth TSR is split across the final two exons of the gene with the first 38 amino acids of the repeat coded for by an asymmetric exon (phase 1-2). This split at the genomic level has been shown, by alignment analysis, to be reflected at the protein level with the division of repeat 6 into TSR-like and TSR-unlike sequences.

1 Follower
29 Reads
  • Source
    • "The human properdin gene has 10 exons with a length of ∼ 6 kb (Nolan et al., 1992). The first exon is untranslated, the second exon consists of the translation start site as well as a sequence which encodes 24 amino acids of signal peptide and the N-terminal region is encoded by exon 3. Exon 4–8 encode each of the TSRs 1–5, exon 9 encodes the first 38 amino acids of TSR6 with the remaining part of TSR6 encoded by exon 10 and the C-terminal region is also encoded by exon 10 (Nolan et al., 1992; Higgins et al., 1995). "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Properdin and factor H are two key regulatory proteins having opposite functions in the alternative complement pathway. Properdin up-regulates the alternative pathway by stabilizing the C3bBb complex, whereas factor H downregulates the pathway by promoting proteolytic degradation of C3b. While factor H is mainly produced in the liver, there are several extrahepatic sources. In addition to the liver, factor H is also synthesized in fetal tubuli, keratinocytes, skin fibroblasts, ocular tissue, adipose tissue, brain, lungs, heart, spleen, pancreas, kidney, muscle, and placenta. Neutrophils are the major source of properdin, and it is also produced by monocytes, T cells and bone marrow progenitor cell line. Properdin is released by neutrophils from intracellular stores following stimulation by N-formyl-methionine-leucine-phenylalanine (fMLP) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). The HEP G2 cells derived from human liver has been found to produce functional properdin. Endothelial cells also produce properdin when induced by shear stress, thus is a physiological source for plasma properdin. The diverse range of extrahepatic sites for synthesis of these two complement regulators suggests the importance and need for local availability of the proteins. Here, we discuss the significance of the local synthesis of properdin and factor H. This assumes greater importance in view of recently identified unexpected and novel roles of properdin and factor H that are potentially independent of their involvement in complement regulation.
    Frontiers in Immunology 04/2013; 4:93. DOI:10.3389/fimmu.2013.00093
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Human properdin deficiency is an X-linked disorder strongly predisposing to meningococcal disease which has been recorded in over 50 cases of various ethnic origins. Immunochemically, total deficiency (type I), partial deficiency (type II), and deficiency due to a dysfunctional molecule (type III) can be differentiated. It is therefore most likely that the causative molecular defects will show considerable genetic heterogeneity. Analysis of the properdin locus at Xp11.3-Xp11.23 has led to the characterization of two polymorphic (dC-dA)n.(dG-dT)n repeats located approximately 15 kb downstream from the structural gene. Three families (two Scottish Caucasoid, one Tunisian Sephardic) with seven deficient individuals were investigated immunochemically and using a nonradioisotopic polymerase chain reaction-based method for microsatellite detection. Probable and definite carriers frequently showed properdin levels which were in the normal range. No recombinants between the microsatellite loci and properdin deficiency were detected, thus allowing identification of the defective allele through the generations in all three pedigrees. Haplotyping for these highly polymorphic microsatellites in close physical linkage to the properdin gene can provide rapid and nonradioactive detection of carrier status and prenatal diagnosis without extensive sequencing analysis.
    Journal of Clinical Investigation 02/1993; 91(1):99-102. DOI:10.1172/JCI116207 · 13.22 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Genetic deficiency of one of the early components of the classical pathway of complement (C1q, C1r, C1s, C4 and C2) is often associated with clinical symptoms and immunochemical abnormalities common in idiopathic autoimmune diseases, such as lupus erythematosus, but also with an increased incidence of various, local and generalized infections. These observations are consistent with the current view of the complement system's role in handling immune complexes and combating microbial invasion. However, the absence of absolute correlations in these experiments of nature suggests that genetic defects of the classical pathway act only epistatically to other host factors and the primary etiologies of the associated diseases. In contrast, the strong association of properdin and factor D deficiency with serious infections caused by encapsulated Gram-negative bacteria suggests a more immediate involvement of the alternative pathway in a specific segment of immunity and its pathology. This concept is also supported by the primordial role of the alternative pathway in the evolution of the complement system and the apparent lethality of factor B deficiency. The gene structures of most of these early components have now been elucidated providing the basis for detailed analyses of the defective alleles, the determination of carrier status, and prenatal diagnosis.
    International Reviews Of Immunology 02/1993; 10(1):17-36. DOI:10.3109/08830189309051169 · 4.10 Impact Factor
Show more


29 Reads
Available from