This paper introduces a compact, low profile shorted patch antenna designed for on-body communication at 2.45 GHz. The proposed antenna operates with a small (~Â¿/5 dimension) groundplane yet maintains a reasonable radiation efficiency of 50.9 % when in close proximity to a muscle tissue phantom. The antenna has more than sufficient impedance bandwidth for the 2.45 GHz band (126 MHz for |S11|<-10 dB), yet its overall height is only 5.75 mm or Â¿/21. For on-body communications, a maximum |S21| path gain of -44.7 dB was obtained at 2.45 GHz.
"The knowledge of electromagnetic properties like permittivity, permeability and loss tangent, of the fabric/textile material are very much important and should be known for the design purpose. There are conductive fabrics like Flectron, Zelt and pure copper polyester taffeta textile material, that are used for radiations whereas non conductive fabrics like felt, fleece, jeans, silk, cotton etc are used as the substrate , Articles in [l]- has demonstrated single band wearable antennas with acceptable performance. Some of these antennas have ground plane having and inherent advantage of having less interaction with human body when worn. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper describes self conceived design of new dual band wearable PIFA operating at Wifi bands (2.40 & 5.80GHz). Different radiating elements used in this indigenous design, outcomes dual mode resonance. The considered design approach has quasi omni-directional pattern that leads to significant back radiations resulting high value of Specific Absorption Rate (SAR), usually not desirable in wearable application. To overcome this issue, the antenna is integrated with dual band high impedance surface (HIS). This modular integration results in reduction of back radiations by 4-15dB at operating frequencies. Sequel to reduction in back radiations, SAR has also been reduced at the operating frequencies, while evaluating its design response for on-body environment. In addition to these improvements, antenna gain has been increased by 8-9dBi along with improvement in return loss by 23-27dB at the operating frequencies. CST Microwave Studio has been used for the design and simulations.
2013 IEEE 9th International Conference on Emerging Technologies (ICET), Islamabad, Pakistan; 12/2013
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This article presents design of a new dual band textile antenna for WiFi application. Normally available felt fabric is utilized for the design. Operating frequencies of the antenna are 2.4GHz and 5.8GHz. Designed antenna is tested in free space and in the proximity of human body model. Because of coupling with human body, the antenna performance degrades, therefore dual band high impedance surface (HIS) has been employed for minimizing these degradations. The HIS array is composed of only 9 (3×3) elements and reduces the radiations toward body and hence minimizes specific absorption rate (SAR) by 94-97 % at the operating frequencies. The integrated design is able to show improvements in return loss, gain and directivity while maintaining good impedance match with adequate bandwidth at the operating frequencies. CST Microwave Studio has been used for all the simulations and designs.
8th European Conference on Antennas and Propagation (EuCAP), Hague; 04/2014
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: This paper will review the evolution of wearable textile antennas over the last couple of decades. Particular emphasis will be given to the process of embroidery. This technique is advantageous for the following reasons: (i) bespoke or mass produced designs can be manufactured using digitized embroidery machines; (ii) glue is not required and (iii) the designs are aesthetic and are integrated into clothing rather than being attached to it. The embroidery technique will be compared to alternative manufacturing processes. The challenges facing the industrial and public acceptance of this technology will be assessed. Hence, the key opportunities will be highlighted.
Keywords: wearable antennas; embroidered antennas; wearable technology; inkjet printing; textiles
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