An Adaptive Unicast/Multicast Routing Algorithm for MPSoCs
ABSTRACT Several parallel applications in MPSoCs take advantage of multicast communication. Path-based multicast scheme has been proven to be more efficient than the others multicast schemes in on-chip interconnection network. We present a new adaptive path based model for both the multicast and unicast wormhole routing protocols. The proposed model under mixed traffic models has lower latency than the previous path-based methods with negligible hardware overhead.
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ABSTRACT: We show that deadlocks due to dependencies on consumption channels are a fundamental problem in wormhole multicast routing. This type of resource deadlocks has not been addressed in many previously proposed wormhole multicast algorithms. We also show that deadlocks on consumption channels can be avoided by using multiple classes of consumption channels and restricting the use of consumption channels by multicast messages. We provide upper bounds for the number of consumption channels required to avoid deadlocks. In addition, we present a new multicast routing algorithm, column-path, which is based on the well-known dimension-order routing used in many multicomputers and multiprocessors. Therefore, this algorithm could be implemented in existing multicomputers with simple changes to the hardware. Using simulations, we compare the performance of the proposed column-path algorithm with the previously proposed Hamiltonian-path-based multipath and an e-cube-based multicast routing algorithms. Our results show that for multicast traffic, the column-path routing offers higher throughputs, while the multipath algorithm offers lower message latencies. Another result of our study is that the commonly implemented simplistic scheme of sending one copy of a multicast message to each of its destinations exhibits good performance provided the number of destinations is smallIEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems 07/1998; DOI:10.1109/71.689441 · 2.17 Impact Factor
Article: The Turn Model for Adaptive Routing[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: We present a model for designing wormhole routing algorithms that are deadlock free, livelock free, minimal or nonminimal, and maximally adaptive. A unique feature of this model is that it is not based on adding physical or virtual channels to network topologies (though it can be applied to networks with extra channels). Instead, the model is based on analyzing the directions in which packets can turn in a network and the cycles that the turns can form. Prohibiting just enough turns to break all of the cycles produces routing algorithms that are deadlock free, livelock free, minimal or nonminimal, and maximally adaptive for the network. In this paper, we focus on the two most common network topologies for wormhole routing, n-dimensional meshes and k-ary n-cubes, without extra channels. In an n-dimensional mesh, just a quarter of the turns must be prohibited to prevent deadlock. The remaining three quarters of the turns permit partial adaptiveness in routing. Partially adaptive routing ...Journal of the ACM 09/1999; DOI:10.1145/146628.140384 · 2.94 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Efficient routing of messages is a key to the performance of multicomputers. Multicast communication refers to the delivery of the same message from a source node to an arbitrary number of destination nodes. While multicast communication is highly demanded in many applications, most of the existing multicomputers do not directly support this service; rather it is indirectly supported by multiple one-to-one or broadcast communications, which result in more network traffic and a waste of system resources. The authors study routing evaluation criteria for multicast communication under different switching technologies. Multicast communication in multicomputers is formulated as a graph theoretical problem. Depending on the evaluation criteria and switching technologies, they study three optimal multicast communication problems, which are equivalent to the finding of the following three subgraphs: optimal multicast path, optimal multicast cycle, and minimal Steiner tree, where the interconnection of a multicomputer defines a host graph. They show that all these optimization problems are NP-complete for the popular 2D-mesh and hypercube host graphs. Heuristic multicast algorithms for these routing problems are proposedIEEE Transactions on Parallel and Distributed Systems 11/1993; DOI:10.1109/71.246072 · 2.17 Impact Factor