"Na/H exchange in the blood–brain barrier is prominently sensitive to amiloride and MIA (Murphy and Johanson, 1990; Sipos et al., 2005; Pedersen et al., 2006) and a high binding capacity of MIA has been demonstrated in cerebral microvessels (Kalaria et al., 1998). The endothelial isoforms of Na/H exchangers are located on the luminal side of endothelial cells (Crone, 1986; Goldstein et al., 1986; Redzic, 2011; Benarroch, 2012), and therefore , they are easily accessible to systemically applied Na/H exchange inhibitors, regardless of the drug permeability across the blood–brain barrier. Amiloride is poorly permeable in the blood– brain barrier (Sipos and Brem, 2000; Fisher, 2002; Liu et al., 2010), and notably, our present study shows that amiloride is as effective as MIA in abolishing post-asphyxia seizures. "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Birth asphyxia is often associated with a high seizure burden that is predictive of poor neurodevelopmental outcome. The mechanisms underlying birth asphyxia seizures are unknown. Using an animal model of birth asphyxia based on 6-day-old rat pups, we have recently shown that the seizure burden is linked to an increase in brain extracellular pH that consists of the recovery from the asphyxia-induced acidosis, and of a subsequent plateau level well above normal extracellular pH. In the present study, two-photon imaging of intracellular pH in neocortical neurons in vivo showed that pH changes also underwent a biphasic acid-alkaline response, resulting in an alkaline plateau level. The mean alkaline overshoot was strongly suppressed by a graded restoration of normocapnia after asphyxia. The parallel post-asphyxia increase in extra- and intracellular pH levels indicated a net loss of acid equivalents from brain tissue that was not attributable to a disruption of the blood-brain barrier, as demonstrated by a lack of increased sodium fluorescein extravasation into the brain, and by the electrophysiological characteristics of the blood-brain barrier. Indeed, electrode recordings of pH in the brain and trunk demonstrated a net efflux of acid equivalents from the brain across the blood-brain barrier, which was abolished by the Na/H exchange inhibitor, N-methyl-isobutyl amiloride. Pharmacological inhibition of Na/H exchange also suppressed the seizure activity associated with the brain-specific alkalosis. Our findings show that the post-asphyxia seizures are attributable to an enhanced Na/H exchange-dependent net extrusion of acid equivalents across the blood-brain barrier and to consequent brain alkalosis. These results suggest targeting of blood-brain barrier-mediated pH regulation as a novel approach in the prevention and therapy of neonatal seizures.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Objective:
To evaluate the significance of circulating tight-junction (TJ) proteins as predictors of hemorrhagic transformation (HT) in ischemic stroke patients.
We examined 458 consecutive ischemic stroke patients, 7.2% of whom had clinically evident HT. None of the patients was treated with thrombolytic drugs. Serum levels of standard markers of blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown (S100B, neuron-specific enolase), TJ proteins (occludin [OCLN], claudin 5 [CLDN5], zonula occludens 1 [ZO1]), and molecules involved in BBB disintegration (matrix metalloproteinase 9 and vascular endothelial growth factor [VEGF]) were assessed upon admission to the emergency department. A clinical deterioration caused by HT (cdHT) was defined as an increase of ≥4 points in the NIH Stroke Scale score in combination with a visible HT on a CT scan performed immediately after the onset of new neurologic symptoms.
Patients with cdHT had higher concentrations of OCLN, S100B, and the CLDN5/ZO1 ratio, and a lower level of VEGF than those without cdHT. CLDN5 levels also correlated with cdHT occurrence when estimated within 3 hours of stroke onset. We also demonstrated correlations between the levels of circulating TJ molecules and the level of S100B, which is a previously established marker of BBB disruption.
Analyzing serum levels of TJ proteins, like CLDN5, OCLN, and CLDN5/ZO1 ratio, as well as S100B and VEGF, is an effective way to screen for clinical deterioration caused by HT in ischemic stroke patients, both within and after the IV thrombolysis time window.
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Despite surgery, radiation and chemotherapy, the prognosis for high-grade glioma (HGG) is poor. Our understanding of the molecular pathways involved in gliomagenesis and progression has increased in recent years, leading to the development of novel agents that specifically target these pathways. Results from most single-agent trials have been modest at best, however. Despite the initial success of antiangiogenesis agents in HGG, the clinical benefit is short-lived and most patients eventually progress. Several novel agents, multi-targeted agents and combination therapies are now in clinical trials for HGG and several more strategies are being pursued.
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