Chemical surface modification of poly-ε-caprolactone improves Schwann cell proliferation for peripheral nerve repair.
ABSTRACT Poly-ε-caprolactone (PCL) is a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer used in tissue engineering for various clinical applications. Schwann cells (SCs) play an important role in nerve regeneration and repair. SCs attach and proliferate on PCL films but cellular responses are weak due to the hydrophobicity and neutrality of PCL. In this study, PCL films were hydrolysed and aminolysed to modify the surface with different functional groups and improve hydrophilicity. Hydrolysed films showed a significant increase in hydrophilicity while maintaining surface topography. A significant decrease in mechanical properties was also observed in the case of aminolysis. In vitro tests with Schwann cells (SCs) were performed to assess film biocompatibility. A short-time experiment showed improved cell attachment on modified films, in particular when amino groups were present on the material surface. Cell proliferation significantly increased when both treatments were performed, indicating that surface treatments are necessary for SC response. It was also demonstrated that cell morphology was influenced by physico-chemical surface properties. PCL can be used to make artificial conduits and chemical modification of the inner lumen improves biocompatibility Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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ABSTRACT: The management of peripheral nerve injury remains a major clinical problem. Progress in this field will almost certainly depend upon manipulating the pathophysiological processes which are triggered by traumatic injuries. One of the most important determinants of functional outcome after the reconstruction of a transected peripheral nerve is the length of the gap between proximal and distal nerve stumps. Long defects (> 2 cm) must be bridged by a suitable conduit in order to support axonal regrowth. This review examines the cellular and acellular elements which facilitate axonal regrowth and the use of acellular muscle grafts in the repair of injuries in the peripheral nervous system.Journal of Anatomy 12/1996; 190(1):57 - 71. · 2.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Most of the conventional materials do not meet the demands required for both their surface and bulk properties when used as biomaterials. An effective approach for developing a clinically applicable biomaterial is to modify the surface of the material which already has excellent biofunctionality and bulk properties. This review article focuses on the surface modification of polymers by grafting techniques, which have long been known in polymer chemistry but are not yet widely applied to biomaterials. A grafted surface can be produced primarily either by graft polymerization of monomers or covalent coupling reaction of existing polymer molecules onto the substrate polymer surface. The major surface properties that should be modified include two kinds of biocompatibility. One is the surface property that elicits the least foreign-body reactions and the other is the cell- and tissue-bonding capability. In addition, physiologically active surfaces with, for instance, selective adsorbability may be required. Attempts to produce these biocompatible or biospecific surfaces by grafting techniques are briefly overviewed in this article.Biomaterials 09/1994; 15(10):725-36. · 7.60 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The major difficulty in Schwann cell (SC) purification is contamination by fibroblasts, which usually become the predominant cell type during SC enrichment in vitro. Current reported measures are mainly limited by either high cost or complicated procedures with low cell yields or purity. Our objectives have been to develop an efficient, easily applicable, rapid method to obtain highly purified SC from the sciatic nerve of newborn rats. The method involves two rounds of purification to eliminate fibroblasts with the novel combined use of cytosine-B-arabinoside hydrochloride (Ara-C) action and differential cell detachment. Cultured cells were first treated with Ara-C for 24 h. The medium was replaced with the growth medium containing 20 ng/ml human heregulin1-beta1 extracellular domain (HRG1-beta1 ECD). After another 48 h in culture, the cells were treated with 0.05% trypsin, following which SCs, but not fibroblasts, were easily detached from the dishes. The advantage of this method is that the two steps can eliminate the fibroblasts complementarily. Ara-C eliminates most of the fibroblasts growing among SCs, whereas the differential cell detachment technique removes the remainder growing under or interacting with the SC layer. A purity of more than 99% SCs has been obtained, as confirmed by cell morphology and immunostaining. The purified SCs have a spindle-shaped, bipolar, and sometimes tripolar morphology, align in fascicles, and express S-100. The whole procedure takes about 10 days from primary culture to the purified SCs growing to confluence (only half the time reported previously). This protocol provides an alternative method for investigating peripheral nerve regeneration and potentially could be used to produce enough SCs to construct artificial nerve scaffolds in vitro.Cell and Tissue Research 08/2009; 337(3):361-9. · 3.68 Impact Factor