The Personal Meaning of Recovery Among Individuals Treated for a First Episode of Psychosis
ABSTRACT There is little understanding of service users' conceptions of recovery in the early phase of psychotic disorders. An enhanced understanding of personal notions of recovery may help with the development and evaluation of interventions that address the concerns of service users. This study examined personal definitions of recovery among individuals recently treated in a specialized early-intervention service in Canada.
Semistructured interviews were carried out with 30 individuals three to five years after initial treatment of a first episode of psychosis. Interpretative phenomenological analysis was used to examine participants' personal meanings of recovery. A typology of recovery definitions was constructed.
A majority of individuals considered themselves to be recovered. Responses indicated that recovery is a multidimensional experience and is often a personalized and achievable goal at this early stage in treatment. Individuals described recovery as improvement in one or more of three domains: illness recovery, psychological and personal recovery, and social and functional recovery. There was variation in the extent to which individuals perceived that recovery involved alleviation of symptoms and elimination of underlying vulnerability to illness.
There were several components of the personal meanings of recovery from a first episode of psychosis and variations in the emphasis that individuals placed on each component. An overall positive outlook may be a function of younger age, shorter duration of illness, and receipt of client-centered comprehensive and phase-specific treatment. Improved understanding of personal notions of recovery can guide clinical practices to address service users' recovery goals.
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ABSTRACT: Social functioning difficulties are a common and disabling feature of psychosis and have also been identified in the prodromal phase. However, debate exists about how such difficulties should be defined and measured. Time spent in structured activity has previously been linked to increased psychological wellbeing in non-clinical samples and may provide a useful way of assessing social functioning in clinical settings. The current study compared hours in structured activity, assessed with the Time Use Survey, in three clinical groups at different stages of psychosis: individuals with at-risk mental states (N=199), individuals with first-episode psychosis (N=878), and individuals with delayed social recovery following the remission of psychotic symptoms (N=77). Time use in the three clinical groups was also compared with norms from an age-matched non-clinical group (N=5686) recruited for the Office for National Statistics UK 2000 Time Use Survey. Cutoff scores for defining social disability and recovery were examined. All three clinical groups spent significantly fewer hours per week in structured activity than individuals in the non-clinical group. Reduced activity levels were observed before the onset of psychosis in individuals with at-risk mental states. Additional reductions in activity were observed in the first-episode psychosis and delayed recovery groups compared to the at-risk mental state group. Assessing time spent in structured activity provides a useful way to assess social disability and recovery across the spectrum of psychosis. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.Schizophrenia Research 12/2014; 161(2-3). DOI:10.1016/j.schres.2014.12.011 · 4.43 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Validation of the psychometric properties of a new measure of citizenship was required for a research project in the province of Quebec, Canada. This study was meant to study the interplay between recovery- and citizenship-oriented supportive employment. As recovery and citizenship were expected to be two related concepts, convergent validity between the Citizenship Measure (CM) and the Recovery Assessment Scale (RAS) was tested. Study objectives were to: 1) conduct exploratory factor analyses on the CM and confirmatory factor analysis on the RAS tools (construct validity), 2) calculate Cronbach's alphas for each dimension emerging from objective 1 (reliability), and 3) calculate correlations between all dimensions from both tools (convergent validity). Data were collected from 174 individuals with serious mental illness, working in social firms. Serious mental illnesses include major depression, schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder, panic disorder, post traumatic stress disorder and borderline personality disorder. Five factors emerged from the exploratory factor analysis of the CM, with good reliability. Confirmatory factor analyses showed that the short and the long versions of the RAS present satisfactory results. Finally, the correlation matrix indicated that all dimensions from both tools are significantly correlated, thus confirming their convergent validity. This study confirms the validity and reliability of two tools, CM and RAS. These tools can be used in combination to assess citizenship and recovery, both of which may be combined in the new concept of civic-recovery.BMC Psychiatry 12/2015; 15(1):420. DOI:10.1186/s12888-015-0420-2 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Subjective descriptions of recovery from schizophrenia may be different from clinical recovery measures. The aim of the review was to identify the consumer perspectives of recovery from schizophrenia. Twenty-five studies within the period of 2000-2013, including qualitative and quantitative studies were reviewed by using different search strategies. An integrated method was used and the findings were coded and related themes were identified under five areas, namely, process orientation, self orientation, family orientation, social orientation, and illness orientation. Recovery was considered as both process and outcome. Patient or client-based definitions of recovery mainly involved factors related to personal wellbeing and social inclusion, that were seemingly distant from the clinical recovery measures. Incorporating consumer descriptions of recovery in recovery oriented services can increase the outcome of the services. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.Asian Journal of Psychiatry 02/2015; DOI:10.1016/j.ajp.2015.01.006