Influence of skin type, race, sex, and anatomic location on epidermal barrier function

Department of Dermatology and Venereology, Tokuda Hospital-Sofia, 51B Nikola Vaptsarov Blvd, 1407 Sofia, Bulgaria.
Clinics in dermatology (Impact Factor: 2.47). 05/2012; 30(3):269-73. DOI: 10.1016/j.clindermatol.2011.08.013
Source: PubMed


The intact skin represents a barrier to the uncontrolled loss of water, proteins, and plasma components from the organism. Owing to its complex structure, the epidermal barrier with its major layer, the stratum corneum, is the rate-limiting unit for the penetration of exogenous substances through the skin. The epidermal barrier is not a static structure. The status of different functions of the epidermis can be monitored by assessing specific biophysical parameters such as transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum hydration, and skin surface pH. Variables originating from the individual as well as exogenous factors have an important influence on the epidermal barrier parameters.

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    ABSTRACT: Non invasive bioengineering techniques have been used to evaluate Stratum Corneum (SC) hydration and Transepidermal Water Loss (TEWL) in normal skin. Fifteen healthy volunteers aged between 21-27 participated in this study. We conducted a self skin evaluation questionnaire and a noninvasive measurement was performed on the palm, forearm, upper arm and forehead under controlled environment (temperature 21 ± 1 °C, relative humidity 45 ± 5%). Skin hydration was measured with a DermaLab® USB Moisture Module (Cortex Technology, Hadsund, Denmark) and Scalar Moisture Checker MY-808S (Scalar Corporation, Japan) while TEWL measurements were determined using a DermaLab® USB TEWL Module. The areas examined showed skin hydration and TEWL was differed depending on the anatomical sites. The correlations between the parameters were analysed. As a result, no significant correlations between TEWL and skin hydration capacitance were observed. A significant correlation was established between TEWL and conductance.
    Humanities, Science and Engineering (CHUSER), 2012 IEEE Colloquium on; 01/2012
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    ABSTRACT: Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory disease that seriously affects the quality of life of these patients. Both immune deviations and epidermal barrier deficiency have been defined as pathophysiologic mechanisms in the disease development. The atopic march, or the natural progression form atopic dermatitis in infancy to asthma and allergic rhinitis, is a classic example for the multiorgan involvement in atopy. It has been hypothesized that epidermal barrier impairment is the primary pathologic condition responsible for the atopic march. In recent decades, a growing body of evidence has accumulated that AD can be accompanied by a variety of systemic diseases, such as autoimmune disorders, ophthalmologic involvement, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, inflammatory bowel disease, nephritic syndrome, and metabolic diseases. This contribution reviews these associations and focuses on the possible common underlying mechanisms of AD and the associated syndromes. We present a concept on AD as a multiorgan systemic disease.
    Clinics in dermatology 01/2013; 32(3):409-13. DOI:10.1016/j.clindermatol.2013.11.007 · 2.47 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background Podoconiosis is a common cause of lymphoedema in barefoot workers in Ethiopia and other countries. It has severe consequences for patients’ physical function, quality of life and economic status. Aims To investigate stratum corneum (SC) hydration and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in patients with podoconiosis compared with controls. Methods In total, 55 patients and 20 controls were recruited. For each study subject, SC and TEWL measurements were taken, along with foot and lower leg circumferences. Measurements were compared between the patient and control groups. Results Foot circumferences tended to be higher in patients with podoconiosis, with the mean foot:leg circumference ratio being 1·19 (95% confidence interval 1·11–1·28) times that for controls (P = 0·001). There was no detectable difference between patients and controls in TEWL values (P > 0·05); however, SC hydration was significantly lower in patients vs. controls for the foot (P = 0·004) and lower leg (P = 0·046) sites. Conclusions Patients with podoconiosis have significantly lower SC hydration in the skin of their lower legs and feet than controls, which may lead to cracking and splitting, and increased risk of lymphoedema and infection.
    British Journal of Dermatology 03/2013; 168(3):550-4. DOI:10.1111/bjd.12134 · 4.28 Impact Factor
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