RAGE: a new frontier in chronic airways disease.
ABSTRACT Asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are heterogeneous inflammatory disorders of the respiratory tract characterized by airflow obstruction. It is now clear that the environmental factors that drive airway pathology in asthma and COPD, including allergens, viruses, ozone and cigarette smoke, activate innate immune receptors known as pattern-recognition receptors, either directly or indirectly by causing the release of endogenous ligands. Thus, there is now intense research activity focused around understanding the mechanisms by which pattern-recognition receptors sustain the airway inflammatory response, and how these mechanisms might be targeted therapeutically. One pattern-recognition receptor that has recently come to attention in chronic airways disease is the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE). RAGE is a member of the immunoglobulin superfamily of cell surface receptors that recognizes pathogen- and host-derived endogenous ligands to initiate the immune response to tissue injury, infection and inflammation. Although the role of RAGE in lung physiology and pathophysiology is not well understood, recent genome-wide association studies have linked RAGE gene polymorphisms with airflow obstruction. In addition, accumulating data from animal and clinical investigations reveal increased expression of RAGE and its ligands, together with reduced expression of soluble RAGE, an endogenous inhibitor of RAGE signalling, in chronic airways disease. In this review, we discuss recent studies of the ligand-RAGE axis in asthma and COPD, highlight important areas for future research and discuss how this axis might potentially be harnessed for therapeutic benefit in these conditions.
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ABSTRACT: Acute cigarette smoke exposure of the airways (two cigarettes twice daily for three days) induces acute inflammation in mice. In this study, we show that airway inflammation is dependent on Toll-like receptor 4 and IL-1R1 signaling. Cigarette smoke induced a significant recruitment of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar space and pulmonary parenchyma, which was reduced in TLR4-, MyD88-, and IL-1R1-deficient mice. Diminished neutrophil influx was associated with reduced IL-1, IL-6, and keratinocyte-derived chemokine levels and matrix metalloproteinase-9 activity in the bronchoalveolar space. Further, cigarette smoke condensate (CSC) induced a macrophage proinflammatory response in vitro, which was dependent on MyD88, IL-1R1, and TLR4 signaling, but not attributable to LPS. Heat shock protein 70, a known TLR4 agonist, was induced in the airways upon smoke exposure, which probably activates the innate immune system via TLR4/MyD88, resulting in airway inflammation. CSC-activated macrophages released mature IL-1beta only in presence of ATP, whereas CSC alone promoted the TLR4/MyD88 signaling dependent production of IL-1alpha and pro-IL-1beta implicating cooperation between TLRs and the inflammasome. In conclusion, acute cigarette exposure results in LPS-independent TLR4 activation, leading to IL-1 production and IL-1R1 signaling, which is crucial for cigarette smoke induced inflammation leading to chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with emphysema.The Journal of Immunology 02/2008; 180(2):1169-78. · 5.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: During infection, vertebrates develop "sickness syndrome," characterized by fever, anorexia, behavioral withdrawal, acute-phase protein responses, and inflammation. These pathophysiological responses are mediated by cytokines, including TNF and IL-1, released during the innate immune response to invasion. Even in the absence of infection, qualitatively similar physiological syndromes occur following sterile injury, ischemia reperfusion, crush injury, and autoimmune-mediated tissue damage. Recent advances implicate high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), a nuclear protein with inflammatory cytokine activities, in stimulating cytokine release. HMGB1 is passively released during cell injury and necrosis, or actively secreted during immune cell activation, positioning it at the intersection of sterile and infection-associated inflammation. To date, eight candidate receptors have been implicated in mediating the biological responses to HMGB1, but the mechanism of HMGB1-dependent cytokine release is unknown. Here we show that Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a pivotal receptor for activation of innate immunity and cytokine release, is required for HMGB1-dependent activation of macrophage TNF release. Surface plasmon resonance studies indicate that HMGB1 binds specifically to TLR4, and that this binding requires a cysteine in position 106. A wholly synthetic 20-mer peptide containing cysteine 106 from within the cytokine-stimulating B box mediates TLR4-dependent activation of macrophage TNF release. Inhibition of TLR4 binding with neutralizing anti-HMGB1 mAb or by mutating cysteine 106 prevents HMGB1 activation of cytokine release. These results have implications for rationale, design, and development of experimental therapeutics for use in sterile and infectious inflammation.Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 06/2010; 107(26):11942-7. · 9.74 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Cigarette smoke has been widely investigated in terms of epidemiology and pathological endpoints in relation to human lung diseases and animal study. In this study we exposed Wistar rats to cigarette smoke at concentrations of 20% and 60% to explore potential molecular mechanisms at the protein level. Exposures were conducted twice a day, 5 days a week for 43 weeks. As a major metabolite of nicotine in cigarette, cotinine level in rat urine was determined by HPLC-MS. A dose-dependent analysis indicated that cotinine may be used as an exposure marker of cigarette smoke. Expression of receptor for advanced glycation endproducts (RAGE), an immunoglobulin super family that triggers the intracellular signal cascade reaction leading to inflammation and its ligand S100A6 (calgranulin) in bronchial epithelial cells and lung tissues of rats, were found to be positive correlated with cotinine levels, indicating that RAGE and S100A6 may be attributable to inflammation and oxidative damage caused by cigarette smoke.Environmental toxicology and pharmacology. 09/2009; 28(2):259-64.