Membrane association of the PTEN tumor suppressor: molecular details of the protein-membrane complex from SPR binding studies and neutron reflection.

Physics Department, Carnegie Mellon University, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, United States of America.
PLoS ONE (Impact Factor: 3.53). 01/2012; 7(4):e32591. DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0032591
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The structure and function of the PTEN phosphatase is investigated by studying its membrane affinity and localization on in-plane fluid, thermally disordered synthetic membrane models. The membrane association of the protein depends strongly on membrane composition, where phosphatidylserine (PS) and phosphatidylinositol diphosphate (PI(4,5)P(2)) act pronouncedly synergistic in pulling the enzyme to the membrane surface. The equilibrium dissociation constants for the binding of wild type (wt) PTEN to PS and PI(4,5)P(2) were determined to be K(d)∼12 µM and 0.4 µM, respectively, and K(d)∼50 nM if both lipids are present. Membrane affinities depend critically on membrane fluidity, which suggests multiple binding sites on the protein for PI(4,5)P(2). The PTEN mutations C124S and H93R show binding affinities that deviate strongly from those measured for the wt protein. Both mutants bind PS more strongly than wt PTEN. While C124S PTEN has at least the same affinity to PI(4,5)P(2) and an increased apparent affinity to PI(3,4,5)P(3), due to its lack of catalytic activity, H93R PTEN shows a decreased affinity to PI(4,5)P(2) and no synergy in its binding with PS and PI(4,5)P(2). Neutron reflection measurements show that the PTEN phosphatase "scoots" along the membrane surface (penetration <5 Å) but binds the membrane tightly with its two major domains, the C2 and phosphatase domains, as suggested by the crystal structure. The regulatory C-terminal tail is most likely displaced from the membrane and organized on the far side of the protein, ∼60 Å away from the bilayer surface, in a rather compact structure. The combination of binding studies and neutron reflection allows us to distinguish between PTEN mutant proteins and ultimately may identify the structural features required for membrane binding and activation of PTEN.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: PTEN, a tumor suppressor that is frequently mutated in a wide spectrum of cancers, exerts PI(3,4,5)P3 phosphatase activities that are regulated by its dynamic shuttling between the membrane and cytoplasm. Direct observation of PTEN in the interfacial environment can offer quantitative information about the shuttling dynamics, but remains elusive. Here we show that positively charged residues located in the cα2 helix of the C2 domain are necessary for the membrane localization of PTEN via stable electrostatic interactions in Dictyostelium discoideum. Single-molecule imaging analyses revealed that PTEN molecules moved distances much larger than expected had they been caused by lateral diffusion, a phenomenon we call "hopping." Our novel single-particle tracking analysis method found that the cα2 helix aids in regulating the hopping and stable-binding states. The dynamically established membrane localization of PTEN was revealed to be essential for developmental processes and clarified a fundamental regulation mechanism of the protein quantity and activity on the plasma membrane.
    PLoS Computational Biology 09/2014; 10(9):e1003817. · 4.87 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Hutchinson-Gilford progeria syndrome is a premature aging disorder associated with the expression of ∆50 lamin A (∆50LA), a mutant form of the nuclear structural protein lamin A (LA). ∆50LA is missing 50 amino acids from the tail domain and retains a C-terminal farnesyl group that is cleaved from the wild-type LA. Many of the cellular pathologies of HGPS are thought to be a consequence of protein-membrane association mediated by the retained farnesyl group. To better characterize the protein-membrane interface, we quantified binding of purified recombinant ∆50LA tail domain (∆50LA-TD) to tethered bilayer membranes composed of phosphatidylserine and phosphocholine using surface plasmon resonance. Farnesylated ∆50LA-TD binds to the membrane interface only in the presence of Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) at physiological ionic strength. At extremely low ionic strength, both the farnesylated and non-farnesylated forms of ∆50LA-TD bind to the membrane surface in amounts that exceed those expected for a densely packed protein monolayer. Interestingly, the wild-type LA-TD with no farnesylation also associates with membranes at low ionic strength but forms only a single layer. We suggest that electrostatic interactions are mediated by charge clusters with a net positive charge that we calculate on the surface of the LA-TDs. These studies suggest that the accumulation of ∆50LA at the inner nuclear membrane observed in cells is due to a combination of aggregation and membrane association rather than simple membrane binding; electrostatics plays an important role in mediating this association.
    Biophysical Chemistry 01/2014; · 2.28 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The phosphatase and tensin homologue (PTEN) and the Ciona intestinalis voltage sensitive phosphatase (Ci-VSP) are both phosphatidylinositol phosphate (PIP) phosphatases that contain a C2 domain. PTEN is a tumor suppressor protein that acts as a phosphatase on PIP3 in mammalian cell membranes. It contains two principal domains: a phosphatase domain (PD) and a C2 domain. Despite detailed structural and functional characterization, less is known about its mechanism of interaction with PIP-containing lipid bilayers. Ci-VSP consists of an N-terminal transmembrane voltage sensor domain and a C-terminal PTEN domain, which in turn contains a PD and a C2 domain. The nature of the interaction of the PTEN domain of Ci-VSP with membranes has not been well established. We have used multiscale molecular dynamics simulations to define the interaction mechanisms of PTEN and of the Ci-VSP PTEN domains with PIP-containing lipid bilayers. Our results suggest a novel mechanism of association of the PTEN with such bilayers, in which an initial electrostatics-driven encounter of the protein and bilayer is followed by reorientation of the protein to optimize its interactions with PIP molecules in the membrane. Although a PIP3 molecule binds close to the active site of PTEN, our simulations suggest a further conformational change of the protein may be required for catalytically productive binding to occur. Ci-VSP interacted with membranes in an orientation comparable to that of PTEN but bound directly to PIP-containing membranes without a subsequent reorientation step. Again, PIP3 bound close to the active site of the Ci-VSP PD, but not in a catalytically productive manner. Interactions of Ci-VSP with the bilayer induced clustering of PIP molecules around the protein.
    Biochemistry 03/2014; 53(11):1724–1732. · 3.38 Impact Factor

Full-text (3 Sources)

Available from
May 26, 2014