Incidence of Restless Legs Syndrome and Its Correlates

Southern Arizona VA HealthCare System, 3601 S 6th Ave, Tucson, Arizona 85723, USA.
Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (Impact Factor: 2.83). 01/2012; 8(2):119-24. DOI: 10.5664/jcsm.1756
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor disorder whose incidence is not known. The aim of the study was to determine the incidence and correlates of RLS in a population-based sample.
We obtained data from the Tucson Cohort of the Sleep Heart Health Study, a prospective multicenter study. This cohort included 535 participants aged ≥ 40 years, who answered questions regarding RLS on the 2002 and 2006 sleep surveys. For this study, RLS was defined as the presence of all 4 International RLS Study Group criteria, with symptoms occurring ≥ 5 days/month and associated with at least moderate distress.
Mean age of the predominantly Caucasian (90.8%) participants on the 2002 survey was 59.8 ± 9.7 years; 52.2% were women. RLS prevalence was 4.1% in 2002 and 7.7% in 2006. The yearly incidence of RLS was 1.7% (6.6% over 4 years). Multivariate analyses demonstrated that estrogen use (OR = 2.5, 95% CI: 1.17-5.10) and self-reported obstructive lung disease (OR = 2.8, 95% CI: 1.37-5.83) were independent risk factors predicting incident RLS. Incident RLS was associated with higher prevalence of insomnia (26.5% vs. 7.6%, p = 0.001), increased sleepiness (38.2% vs. 22%, p = 0.036); and higher sleeping pill use in 2006 (23.5% vs. 9.7%, p = 0.019).
The incidence of RLS in this population sample was 1.7% per year. Use of estrogen and history of obstructive lung disease were associated with a significantly higher incidence of RLS. RLS, in turn, was associated with insomnia and increased sleepiness.

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    Journal of clinical sleep medicine: JCSM: official publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine 01/2012; 8(2):125-6. DOI:10.5664/jcsm.1758 · 2.83 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Restless legs syndrome (RLS), also known as Willis-Ekbom disease, is a sensory-motor neurological disorder with a circadian component. RLS is characterized by uncomfortable sensations in the extremities, generally at night or during sleep, which often leads to an uncontrollable urge to move them for relief. Recently, genomic studies identified single-nucleotide polymorphisms in BTBD9, along with three other genes, as being associated with a higher risk of RLS. Little is known about the function of BTBD9 or its potential role in the pathophysiology of RLS. We therefore examined a line of Btbd9 mutant mice we recently generated for phenotypes similar to symptoms found in RLS patients. We observed that the Btbd9 mutant mice had motor restlessness, sensory alterations likely limited to the rest phase, and decreased sleep and increased wake times during the rest phase. Additionally, the Btbd9 mutant mice had altered serum iron levels and monoamine neurotransmitter systems. Furthermore, the sensory alterations in the Btbd9 mutant mice were relieved using ropinirole, a dopaminergic agonist widely used for RLS treatment. These results, taken together, suggest that the Btbd9 mutant mice model several characteristics similar to RLS and would therefore be the first genotypic mouse model of RLS. Furthermore, our data provide further evidence that BTBD9 is involved in RLS, and future studies of the Btbd9 mutant mice will help shine light on its role in the pathophysiology of RLS. Finally, our data argue for the utility of Btbd9 mutant mice to discover and screen novel therapeutics for RLS.
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