Association of Childhood Obesity With Maternal Exposure to Ambient Air Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons During Pregnancy

Department of Epidemiology, Mailman School of Public Health, Columbia University, New York, New York 10032, USA.
American journal of epidemiology (Impact Factor: 5.23). 04/2012; 175(11):1163-72. DOI: 10.1093/aje/kwr455
Source: PubMed


There are concerns that prenatal exposure to endocrine-disrupting chemicals increases children’s risk of obesity. African-American
and Hispanic children born in the Bronx or Northern Manhattan, New York (1998–2006), whose mothers underwent personal air
monitoring for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure during pregnancy, were followed up to ages 5 (n = 422) and 7 (n = 341) years. At age 5 years, 21% of the children were obese, as were 25% of those followed to age 7 years. After adjustment
for child’s sex, age at measurement, ethnicity, and birth weight and maternal receipt of public assistance and prepregnancy
obesity, higher prenatal PAH exposures were significantly associated with higher childhood body size. In adjusted analyses,
compared with children of mothers in the lowest tertile of PAH exposure, children of mothers in the highest exposure tertile
had a 0.39-unit higher body mass index z score (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.08, 0.70) and a relative risk of 1.79 (95% CI: 1.09, 2.96) for obesity at age 5 years,
and they had a 0.30-unit higher body mass index z score (95% CI: 0.01, 0.59), a 1.93-unit higher percentage of body fat (95% CI: 0.33, 3.54), and a relative risk of 2.26 (95%
CI: 1.28, 4.00) for obesity at age 7 years. The data indicate that prenatal exposure to PAHs is associated with obesity in

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Available from: Andrew Rundle, Feb 17, 2014
    • "Possible interactions between maternal urinary phthalate component scores and age 5 verses age 7 follow-up wave were assessed by including a follow-up wave by component scores interaction term in the model. To assess possible bias due to incomplete follow-up at ages 5 and 7, inverse probability weights for successful assessment at each of these two waves were calculated as described previously (Curtis et al. 2007; Hernan et al. 2004; Rundle et al. 2012) and these weights were incorporated into the GEE models. "
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    ABSTRACT: Phthalate exposures are hypothesized to increase obesity; however, prior research has been largely cross-sectional. To evaluate associations between prenatal phthalate exposures and body mass index (BMI) at child ages 5 and 7 years. Nine metabolites of six phthalates: di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), di-n-octyl-, di-iso-butyl-, di-n-butyl-, butylbenzyl-, and diethyl phthalates, were measured in spot urine samples collected from pregnant African American and Dominican women during their third trimester, and from their children at ages 3 and 5 years. To reduce multiple comparison issues, we initially used Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to identify major patterns of (ln)-transformed metabolite concentrations. Height and weight were assessed at ages 5 and 7 years, and fat mass and waist circumference at age 7. Linearized generalized estimating equation analyses related maternal component scores to child anthropometric outcomes at ages 5 (n=326) and 7 (n=330). PCA identified a DEHP component and a non-DEHP component. In boys, higher maternal non-DEHP, but not DEHP, component scores were associated with lower BMI z-score (β = -0.30, 95% CI: -0.50, -0.10, n=156), lower fat percentage (β= -1.62; 95% CI: -2.91, -0.34, n=142) and smaller waist circumference (β= -2.02; 95% CI: -3.71, -0.32, n=124). No significant associations with anthropometric outcomes were seen in girls (For BMI z-score, β=0.07; 95% CI: -0.18, 0.31, n=181). Interactions between sex and non-DEHP component association with outcomes were statistically significant (p<0.01). Contrary to hypotheses, prenatal non-DEHP phthalate exposures were associated with lower BMI z-score, waist circumference and fat mass in boys during early childhood.
    Environmental Health Perspectives 06/2015; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1408750 · 7.98 Impact Factor
    • "As in previous analyses (Rundle et al., 2012), to account for potential bias due to selection and loss to follow-up, in post-hoc sensitivity analyses, we applied the inverse probability weighting (IPW) technique (Curtis et al., 2007; Hernan et al., 2004; Robins et al., 2000). As before (Rundle et al., 2012), to model probability of staying in the study for each subject, we used a logistic model that included baseline variables for race/ethnicity, receipt of public assistance during pregnancy, high school education, college education, reported satisfaction with living conditions, cord adduct level, neighborhood poverty rate, Spanish language linguistic isolation, and indicator variables for missing data on these variables. Note that the missing data on covariates in the 27 subjects were first filled in with single imputation. "
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    ABSTRACT: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are common carcinogenic and neurotoxic urban air pollutants. Toxic exposures, including air pollution, are disproportionately high in communities of color and frequently co-occur with chronic economic deprivation. We examined whether the association between child IQ and prenatal exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons differed between groups of children whose mothers reported high vs. low material hardship during their pregnancy and through child age 5. We tested statistical interactions between hardships and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, as measured by DNA adducts in cord blood, to determine whether material hardship exacerbated the association between adducts and IQ scores. Prospective cohort. Participants were recruited from 1998 to 2006 and followed from gestation through age 7 years. Urban community (New York City) PARTICIPANTS: A community-based sample of 276 minority urban youth EXPOSURE MEASURE: Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon-DNA adducts in cord blood as an individual biomarker of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon exposure. Maternal material hardship self-reported prenatally and at multiple timepoints through early childhood. Child IQ at 7 years assessed using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children. Significant inverse effects of high cord PAH-DNA adducts on full scale IQ, perceptual reasoning and working memory scores were observed in the groups whose mothers reported a high level of material hardship during pregnancy or recurring high hardship into the child's early years, and not in those without reported high hardship. Significant interactions were observed between high cord adducts and prenatal hardship on working memory scores (β=-8.07, 95% CI (-14.48, -1.66) and between high cord adducts and recurrent material hardship (β=-9.82, 95% CI (-16.22, -3.42). The findings add to other evidence that socioeconomic disadvantage can increase the adverse effects of toxic physical "stressors" like air pollutants. Observed associations between high cord adducts and reduced IQ were significant only among the group of children whose mothers reported high material hardship. These results indicate the need for a multifaceted approach to prevention. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.
    Neurotoxicology and Teratology 04/2015; 49. DOI:10.1016/ · 2.76 Impact Factor
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    • "Environmental Research 135 (2014) 221–226 2004; Perera et al., 2006; Rundle et al., 2012 "
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    ABSTRACT: Background: Preterm birth is an important marker of health and has a prevalence of 12-13% in the U.S. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a group of organic contaminants that form during the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons, such as coal, diesel and gasoline. Studies suggest that exposure to PAHs during pregnancy is related to adverse birth outcomes. The aim of this study is to evaluate the association between exposure to PAHs during the pregnancy and preterm birth. Methods: The study population included births from years 2001 to 2006 of women whose maternal residence was within 20km of the primary monitoring site in Fresno, California. Data in the Fresno area were used to form a spatio-temporal model to assign daily exposure to PAHs with 4, 5, or 6 rings at the maternal residence throughout pregnancy of all of the births in the study area. Gestational age at birth and relevant covariates were extracted from the birth certificate. Results: We found an association between PAHs during the last 6 weeks of pregnancy and birth at 20-27 weeks (OR=2.74; 95% CI: 2.24-3.34) comparing the highest quartile to the lower three. The association was consistent when each quartile was compared to the lowest (OR2nd=1.49, 95% CI: 1.08-2.06; OR3rd=2.63, 95% CI:1.93-3.59; OR4th=3.94, 95% CI:3.03-5.12). Inverse associations were also observed for exposure to PAHs during the entire pregnancy and the first trimester and birth at 28-31 weeks and 20-27 weeks. Conclusion: An association between PAH exposure during the 6 weeks before delivery and early preterm birth was observed. However, the inverse association with early preterm birth offers an unclear, and potentially complex, inference of these associations.
    Environmental Research 10/2014; 135C:221-226. DOI:10.1016/j.envres.2014.09.014 · 4.37 Impact Factor
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