Microtubule-associated Protein 1 Light Chain 3 (LC3) Interacts with Bnip3 Protein to Selectively Remove Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondria via Autophagy

Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California San Diego, La Jolla, California 92093, USA.
Journal of Biological Chemistry (Impact Factor: 4.57). 04/2012; 287(23):19094-104. DOI: 10.1074/jbc.M111.322933
Source: PubMed


Autophagy plays an important role in cellular quality control and is responsible for removing protein aggregates and dysfunctional organelles. Bnip3 is an atypical BH3-only protein that is known to cause mitochondrial dysfunction and cell death. Interestingly, Bnip3 can also protect against cell death by inducing mitochondrial autophagy. The mechanism for this process, however, remains poorly understood. Bnip3 contains a C-terminal transmembrane domain that is essential for homodimerization and proapoptotic function. In this study, we show that homodimerization of Bnip3 is also a requirement for induction of autophagy. Several Bnip3 mutants that do not interfere with its mitochondrial localization but disrupt homodimerization failed to induce autophagy in cells. In addition, we discovered that endogenous Bnip3 is localized to both mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). To investigate the effects of Bnip3 at mitochondria or the ER on autophagy, Bnip3 was targeted specifically to each organelle by substituting the Bnip3 transmembrane domain with that of Acta or cytochrome b(5). We found that Bnip3 enhanced autophagy in cells from both sites. We also discovered that Bnip3 induced removal of both ER (ERphagy) and mitochondria (mitophagy) via autophagy. The clearance of these organelles was mediated in part via binding of Bnip3 to LC3 on the autophagosome. Although ablation of the Bnip3-LC3 interaction by mutating the LC3 binding site did not impair the prodeath activity of Bnip3, it significantly reduced both mitophagy and ERphagy. Our data indicate that Bnip3 regulates the apoptotic balance as an autophagy receptor that induces removal of both mitochondria and ER.

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    • "xia - induced macroautophagy or mitophagy ( Sowter et al . , 2001 ; Tracy et al . , 2007 ; Zhang et al . , 2008 ; Bellot et al . , 2009 ) . While BH3 domains of BNIP3 and NIX are sufficient to induce the general autophagy response ( Bellot et al . , 2009 ) , induction of mitophagy requires the LIR domain of NIX ( Novak et al . , 2010 ) and BNIP3 ( Hanna et al . , 2012 ; Zhu et al . , 2013 ) . Phosphorylation of BNIP3 at serines flanking its LIR domain promotes binding to LC3 family members and thereby increases mitophagy ( Zhu et al . , 2013 ) , however , involved kinases are unknown ( Figure 3B ) . It is not clear how phosphorylation of BNIP3 is regulated under hypoxia and if phosphorylation regulate"
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    ABSTRACT: Oxygen (O2) is an essential substrate in cellular metabolism, bioenergetics, and signaling and as such linked to the survival and normal function of all metazoans. Low O2 tension (hypoxia) is a fundamental feature of physiological processes as well as pathophysiological conditions such as cancer and ischemic diseases. Central to the molecular mechanisms underlying O2 homeostasis are the hypoxia-inducible factors-1 and -2 alpha (HIF-1α and EPAS1/HIF-2α) that function as master regulators of the adaptive response to hypoxia. HIF-induced genes promote characteristic tumor behaviors, including angiogenesis and metabolic reprogramming. The aim of this review is to critically explore current knowledge of how HIF-α signaling regulates the abundance and function of major O2-consuming organelles. Abundant evidence suggests key roles for HIF-1α in the regulation of mitochondrial homeostasis. An essential adaptation to sustained hypoxia is repression of mitochondrial respiration and induction of glycolysis. HIF-1α activates several genes that trigger mitophagy and represses regulators of mitochondrial biogenesis. Several lines of evidence point to a strong relationship between hypoxia, the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, and activation of the unfolded protein response. Surprisingly, although peroxisomes depend highly on molecular O2 for their function, there has been no evidence linking HIF signaling to peroxisomes. We discuss our recent findings that establish HIF-2α as a negative regulator of peroxisome abundance and suggest a mechanism by which cells attune peroxisomal function with O2 availability. HIF-2α activation augments peroxisome turnover by pexophagy and thereby changes lipid composition reminiscent of peroxisomal disorders. We discuss potential mechanisms by which HIF-2α might trigger pexophagy and place special emphasis on the potential pathological implications of HIF-2α-mediated pexophagy for human health.
    Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology 08/2015; 3:42. DOI:10.3389/fcell.2015.00042
    • "The increased basal autophagy may be particularly important for the removal of dysfunctional mitochondria after exercise and the mitochondrial biogenesis is important to maintain the quality and quantity of mitochondria in skeletal muscle. Bnip3, as an autophagy receptor, induces degradation of mitochondria (Hanna et al. 2012) by localizing itself to the membrane of mitochondria and interacting with LC3. Our correlation analysis between LC3- II and Bnip3 also supports the view that the upregulated basal autophagy may target the Bnip3-mediated mitophagy as they were found to be positively correlated . "
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    ABSTRACT: Autophagy has been shown to be responsive to physical exercise. However, the effects of prolonged habitual exercise on autophagy in cardiac muscle remain unknown. The present study aimed to examine whether long-term habitual exercise alters the basal autophagic signalling in cardiac muscle. Female Sprague-Dawley rats aged 2 months were randomly assigned to control and exercise groups. Animals in exercise group were kept in cages with free access exercise wheels to perform habitual exercise for 5 months. Animals in the control group were placed in cages without exercise wheels. Ventricular muscle tissues were harvested for analysis after 5 months. Phosphorylation statuses of upstream autophagic regulatory proteins and protein expressions of downstream autophagic facts remained unchanged in the cardiac muscle of exercise animals when compared to control animals. Intriguingly, the protein abundance of microtubule-associated protein-1 light chain -3 II (LC3-II), heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator (PGC-1α) were significantly increased in cardiac muscle of exercise rats relative to control rats. 5 months of habitual exercise causes the adaptive increase in LC3-II reserve without altering autophagic flux, which probably contributes to the elevation of cellular autophagic capacity and efficiency of cardiac muscle. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
    International Journal of Sports Medicine 03/2015; 36(07). DOI:10.1055/s-0034-1398494 · 2.07 Impact Factor
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    • "Interestingly, BNIP3 plays a central role in As2O3-induced autophagic cell death in malignant glioma cells [22]. BNIP3, Beclin and microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) are also requirement for autophagy induction and is enhanced at mitochondria [23]. These observations led us to hypothesize whether EDHB-induced autophagic cell death which is mediated by BNIP3. "
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    ABSTRACT: The protocatechuic acid ethyl ester ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate is an antioxidant found in the testa of peanut seeds. Previous studies have shown that ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate can effectively reduce breast cancer cell metastasis by inhibiting prolyl-hydroxylase. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effect of ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate on esophageal squamous cell carcinoma cells in vitro and identified key regulators of ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate-induced esophageal cancer cell death through transcription expression profiling. Using flow cytometry analysis, we found that ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate induced S phase accumulation, a loss in mitochondrial membrane permeabilization, and caspase-dependent apoptosis. Moreover, an expression profile analysis identified 46 up- and 9 down-regulated genes in esophageal cancer KYSE 170 cells treated with ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate. These differentially expressed genes are involved in several signaling pathways associated with cell cycle regulation and cellular metabolism. Consistent with the expression profile results, the transcriptional and protein expression levels of candidate genes NDRG1, BNIP3, AKR1C1, CCNG2 and VEGFA were found to be significantly increased in treated KYSE 170 cells by reverse-transcription PCR and western blot analysis. We also found that protein levels of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, BNIP3, Beclin and NDRG1 were increased and that enriched expression of BNIP3 and Beclin caused autophagy mediated by microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 in the treated cells. Autophagy and apoptosis were activated together in esophageal cancer cells after exposed to ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate. Furthermore, knock-down of NDRG1 expression by siRNA significantly attenuated apoptosis in the cancer cells, implying that NDRG1 may be required for ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate-induced apoptosis. Together, these results suggest that the cytotoxic effects of ethyl-3,4-dihydroxybenzoate were mediated by the up-regulation of NDRG1, BNIP3, Beclin and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, initiating BNIP3 and Beclin mediated autophagy at an early stage and ultimately resulting in esophageal cancer cell apoptosis.
    PLoS ONE 09/2014; 9(9):e107204. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0107204 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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