ERK3 signals through SRC-3 coactivator to promote human lung cancer cell invasion.
ABSTRACT In contrast to the well-studied classic MAPKs, such as ERK1/2, little is known concerning the regulation and substrates of the atypical MAPK ERK3 signaling cascade and its function in cancer progression. Here, we report that ERK3 interacted with and phosphorylated steroid receptor coactivator 3 (SRC-3), an oncogenic protein overexpressed in multiple human cancers at serine 857 (S857). This ERK3-mediated phosphorylation at S857 was essential for interaction of SRC-3 with the ETS transcription factor PEA3, which promotes upregulation of MMP gene expression and proinvasive activity in lung cancer cells. Importantly, knockdown of ERK3 or SRC-3 inhibited the ability of lung cancer cells to invade and form tumors in the lung in a xenograft mouse model. In addition, ERK3 was found to be highly upregulated in human lung carcinomas. Our study identifies a previously unknown role for ERK3 in promoting lung cancer cell invasiveness by phosphorylating SRC-3 and regulating SRC-3 proinvasive activity by site-specific phosphorylation. As such, ERK3 protein kinase may be an attractive target for therapeutic treatment of invasive lung cancer.
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ABSTRACT: Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in men in America. Currently, steroid receptor coactivators have been proposed to mediate the development and progression of prostate cancer, at times in a steroid-independent manner. Steroid receptor coactivator-3 (SRC-3, p/CIP, AIB1, ACTR, RAC3, and TRAM-1) is a member of the p160 family of coactivators for nuclear hormone receptors including the androgen receptor. SRC-3 is frequently amplified or overexpressed in a number of cancers. However, the role of SRC-3 in cancer cell proliferation and survival is still poorly understood. In this study, we show that SRC-3 is overexpressed in prostate cancer patients and its overexpression correlates with prostate cancer proliferation and is inversely correlated with apoptosis. Consistent with patient data, we have observed that reduction of SRC-3 expression by small interfering RNA decreases proliferation, delays the G1-S transition, and increases cell apoptosis of different prostate cancer cell lines. Furthermore, with decreased SRC-3 expression, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and Bcl-2 expression, as well as bromodeoxyuridine incorporation in prostate cancer cells are reduced. Finally, knockdown of SRC-3 with inducible short hairpin RNA expression in prostate cancer cells decreased tumor growth in nude mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that SRC-3 is an important regulator of prostate cancer proliferation and survival.Cancer Research 10/2005; 65(17):7976-83. · 7.86 Impact Factor