Environmental Estrogens Differentially Engage the Histone Methyltransferase EZH2 to Increase Risk of Uterine Tumorigenesis
ABSTRACT Environmental exposures during sensitive windows of development can reprogram normal physiologic responses and alter disease susceptibility later in life in a process known as developmental reprogramming. For example, exposure to the xenoestrogen diethylstilbestrol during reproductive tract development can reprogram estrogen-responsive gene expression in the myometrium, resulting in hyperresponsiveness to hormone in the adult uterus and promotion of hormone-dependent uterine leiomyoma. We show here that the environmental estrogens genistein, a soy phytoestrogen, and the plasticizer bisphenol A, differ in their pattern of developmental reprogramming and promotion of tumorigenesis (leiomyomas) in the uterus. Whereas both genistein and bisphenol A induce genomic estrogen receptor (ER) signaling in the developing uterus, only genistein induced phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/AKT nongenomic ER signaling to the histone methyltransferase enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2). As a result, this pregenomic signaling phosphorylates and represses EZH2 and reduces levels of H3K27me3 repressive mark in chromatin. Furthermore, only genistein caused estrogen-responsive genes in the adult myometrium to become hyperresponsive to hormone; estrogen-responsive genes were repressed in bisphenol A-exposed uteri. Importantly, this pattern of EZH2 engagement to decrease versus increase H3K27 methylation correlated with the effect of these xenoestrogens on tumorigenesis. Developmental reprogramming by genistein promoted development of uterine leiomyomas, increasing tumor incidence and multiplicity, whereas bisphenol A did not. These data show that environmental estrogens have distinct nongenomic effects in the developing uterus that determines their ability to engage the epigenetic regulator EZH2, decrease levels of the repressive epigenetic histone H3K27 methyl mark in chromatin during developmental reprogramming, and promote uterine tumorigenesis.
SourceAvailable from: Ramji Bhandari
Dataset: GCE 2014 review
Dataset: GCE 2014 review
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ABSTRACT: Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), including the mass-produced component of plastics, bisphenol A (BPA) are widely prevalent in aquatic and terrestrial habitats. Many aquatic species, such as fish, amphibians, aquatic reptiles and mammals, are exposed daily to high concentrations of BPA and 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2), estrogen in birth control pills. In this review, we will predominantly focus on BPA and EE2, welldescribed estrogenic EDCs. First, the evidence that BPA and EE2 are detectable in almost all bodies of water will be discussed. We will consider how BPA affects sexual and neural development in these species, as these effects have been the best characterized across taxa. For instance, such chemicals have been in many cases reported to cause sex-reversal of males to females. Even if these chemicals do not overtly alter the gonadal sex, there are indications that several EDCs might demasculinize male-specific behaviors that are essential for attracting a mate. In so doing, these chemicals may reduce the likelihood that these males reproduce. If exposed males do reproduce, the concern is that they will then be passing on compromised genetic fitness to their offspring and transmitting potential transgenerational effects through their sperm epigenome. We will thus consider how diverse epigenetic changes might be a unifying mechanism of how BPA and EE2 disrupt several processes across species. Such changes might also serve as universal species diagnostic biomarkers of BPA and other EDCs exposure. Lastly, the evidence that estrogenic EDCs-induced effects in aquatic species might translate to humans will be considered.