Inhibition of tumor cell surface ATP synthesis by pigment epithelium-derived factor: implications for antitumor activity.

Section of Protein Structure and Function, Laboratory of Retinal Cell and Molecular Biology, NEI-NIH, Bethesda, MD, USA.
International Journal of Oncology (Impact Factor: 2.77). 04/2012; 41(1):219-27. DOI: 10.3892/ijo.2012.1431
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Recently, we have shown that the antiangiogenic pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) can bind the catalytic β-subunit of F1-ATP synthase and inhibit endothelial cell surface ATP synthase activity. This factor can additionally restrict tumor growth, invasion and metastasis, and can directly induce death on several tumor cell types. Active cell surface ATP synthase is also present in certain tumor cells and its ATP product is considered a stimulus for tumor growth. The present study aimed to elucidate the biological implications of the interactions between the extracellular PEDF and tumor cell surface ATP synthase. Incubation of T24 human urinary bladder carcinoma cells in media containing human recombinant PEDF protein for 48-96 h dramatically decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent fashion as monitored by real-time cell impedance with a microelectronic system, microscopic imaging and biomarkers of live cells. Intact tumor cells exhibited cell surface ATP synthesis activity, which was inhibited by piceatannol, a specific inhibitor of F1/F0-ATP synthase. Immunoblotting revealed that the β subunit of F1-ATP synthase was present in plasma membrane fractions of these cells. Interestingly, pre-incubation of tumor cells with PEDF inhibited the activity of cell surface ATP synthase in a concentration-dependent fashion. The PEDF-derived peptide 34-mer decreased tumor cell viability and inhibited extracellular ATP synthesis to the same extent as full-length PEDF. Moreover, ATP additions attenuated both the PEDF-mediated decrease in tumor cell viability and the inhibition of endothelial cell tube formation. The results lead to conclude that PEDF is a novel inhibitor of tumor cell surface ATP synthase activity that exhibits a cytotoxic effect on tumor cells, and that the structural determinants for these properties are within the peptide region 34-mer of the PEDF polypeptide. The data strongly suggest a role for the interaction between the 34-mer region of PEDF and tumor cell-surface ATP synthase in promoting tumor cell death.

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