Inhibition of tumor cell surface ATP synthesis by pigment epithelium-derived factor: implications for antitumor activity.
ABSTRACT Recently, we have shown that the antiangiogenic pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) can bind the catalytic β-subunit of F1-ATP synthase and inhibit endothelial cell surface ATP synthase activity. This factor can additionally restrict tumor growth, invasion and metastasis, and can directly induce death on several tumor cell types. Active cell surface ATP synthase is also present in certain tumor cells and its ATP product is considered a stimulus for tumor growth. The present study aimed to elucidate the biological implications of the interactions between the extracellular PEDF and tumor cell surface ATP synthase. Incubation of T24 human urinary bladder carcinoma cells in media containing human recombinant PEDF protein for 48-96 h dramatically decreased cell viability in a concentration-dependent fashion as monitored by real-time cell impedance with a microelectronic system, microscopic imaging and biomarkers of live cells. Intact tumor cells exhibited cell surface ATP synthesis activity, which was inhibited by piceatannol, a specific inhibitor of F1/F0-ATP synthase. Immunoblotting revealed that the β subunit of F1-ATP synthase was present in plasma membrane fractions of these cells. Interestingly, pre-incubation of tumor cells with PEDF inhibited the activity of cell surface ATP synthase in a concentration-dependent fashion. The PEDF-derived peptide 34-mer decreased tumor cell viability and inhibited extracellular ATP synthesis to the same extent as full-length PEDF. Moreover, ATP additions attenuated both the PEDF-mediated decrease in tumor cell viability and the inhibition of endothelial cell tube formation. The results lead to conclude that PEDF is a novel inhibitor of tumor cell surface ATP synthase activity that exhibits a cytotoxic effect on tumor cells, and that the structural determinants for these properties are within the peptide region 34-mer of the PEDF polypeptide. The data strongly suggest a role for the interaction between the 34-mer region of PEDF and tumor cell-surface ATP synthase in promoting tumor cell death.
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) has neuronal differentiation and survival activity on retinoblastoma and cerebellar granule (CG) cells. Here, we investigated the presence of PEDF receptors on retinoblastoma Y-79 and CG cells. PEDF radiolabeled with (l25)I remained biologically active and was used for radioligand binding analysis. The binding was saturable and specific to a single class of receptors on both cells and with similar affinities (K(d) = 1.7-3.6 nM, B(max) = 0.5-2.7 x 10(5) sites/Y-79 cell; and K(d) = 3.2 nM, B(max) = 1.1 x 10(3) sites/CG cell). A polyclonal antiserum to PEDF, previously shown to block the PEDF neurotrophic activity, prevented the (125)I-PEDF binding. We designed two peptides from a region previously shown to confer the neurotrophic property to human PEDF, synthetic peptides 34-mer (positions 44-77) and 44-mer (positions 78-121). Only peptide 44-mer competed for the binding to Y-79 cell receptors (EC(50) = 5 nM) and exhibited neuronal differentiating activity. PEDF affinity column chromatography of membrane proteins from both cell types revealed a PEDF-binding protein of approximately 80 kDa. These results are the first demonstration of a PEDF-binding protein with characteristics of a PEDF receptor and suggest that the region comprising amino acid positions 78-121 of PEDF might be involved in ligand-receptor interactions.Journal of Biological Chemistry 11/1999; 274(44):31605-12. · 4.65 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Pigment epithelium-derived factor (PEDF) is a multifunctional serpin with antitumorigenic, antimetastatic, and differentiating activities. PEDF is found within tissues rich in the glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA), and its amino acid sequence contains putative HA-binding motifs. We show that PEDF coprecipitation with glycosaminoglycans in media conditioned by human retinoblastoma Y-79 cells decreased after pretreatments with hyaluronidase, implying an association between HA and PEDF. Direct binding of human recombinant PEDF to highly purified HA was demonstrated by coprecipitation in the presence of cetylpyridinium chloride. Binding of PEDF to HA was concentration-dependent and saturable. The PEDF-HA interactions were sensitive to increasing NaCl concentrations, indicating an ionic nature of these interactions and having affinity higher than PEDF-heparin. Competition assays showed that PEDF can bind heparin and HA simultaneously. PEDF chemically modified with fluorescein retained the capacity for interacting with HA but lacked heparin affinity, suggesting one or more distinct HA-binding regions on PEDF. The HA-binding region was examined by site-directed mutagenesis. Single-point and cumulative alterations at basic residues within the putative HA-binding motif K189A/K191A/R194A/K197A drastically reduced the HA-binding activity without affecting heparin- or collagen I binding of PEDF. Cumulative alterations at sites critical for heparin binding (K146A/K147A/R149A) decreased HA affinity but not collagen I binding. Thus these clusters of basic residues (BXBXXBXXB and BX3AB2XB motifs) in PEDF are functional regions for binding HA. In the spatial PEDF structure they are located in distinct areas away from the collagen-binding site. The HA-binding activity of PEDF may contribute to deposition in the extracellular matrix and to its reported antitumor/antimetastatic effects.Journal of Biological Chemistry 10/2008; 283(48):33310-20. · 4.65 Impact Factor
- [show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Mitochondrial biogenesis is known to accompany adipogenesis to complement ATP and acetyl-CoA required for lipogenesis. Here, we demonstrated that mitochondrial proteins such as ATP synthase alpha and beta, and cytochrome c were highly expressed during the 3T3-L1 differentiation into adipocytes. Fully-differentiated adipocytes showed a significant increase of mitochondria under electron microscopy. Analysis by immunofluorescence, cellular fractionation, and surface biotinylation demonstrated the elevated levels of ATP synthase complex found not only in the mitochondria but also on the cell surface (particularly lipid rafts) of adipocytes. High rate of ATP (more than 30 microM) synthesis from the added ADP and P(i) in the adipocyte media suggests the involvement of the surface ATP synthase complex for the extracellular ATP synthesis. In addition, this ATP synthesis was significantly inhibited in the presence of oligomycin, an ATP synthase inhibitor, and carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), an ATP synthase uncoupler. Decrease of extracellular ATP synthesis in acidic but not in basic media further indicates that the surface ATP synthase may also be regulated by proton gradient through the plasma membrane.Experimental and Molecular Medicine 11/2004; 36(5):476-85. · 2.57 Impact Factor