Intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections among young adult women.
ABSTRACT Intimate partner violence (IPV) is common among young adult relationships, and is associated with significant morbidity, including sexually transmitted infections (STI). This study measured the association between IPV victimization and perpetration and prevalent STIs and STI-risk behaviors among a sample of young women.
This analysis uses wave 3 of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health and was restricted to the 3548 women who reported on a sexual relationship that occurred in the previous 3 months and agreed to STI testing. A multivariate random effects model was used to determine associations between STI and STI-risk behaviors and IPV.
The IPV prevalence over the past year was 32%-3% victim-only, 12% perpetrator-only, and 17% reciprocal. The STI prevalence was 7.1%. Overall, 17% of participants reported partner concurrency and 32% reported condom use at last vaginal intercourse. In multivariate analysis, victim-only and reciprocal IPV were associated with not reporting condom use at last vaginal intercourse. Perpetrator-only, victim-only, and reciprocal IPV were associated with partner concurrency. Victim-only IPV was associated with a higher likelihood of having a prevalent STI (odds ratio: 2.1; 95% confidence interval: 1.0-4.2).
This analysis adds to the growing body of literature that suggests that female IPV victims have a higher STI prevalence, as well as a higher prevalence of STI-risk behaviors, compared with women in nonviolent relationships. Women in violent relationships should be considered for STI screening in clinics, and IPV issues should be addressed in STI prevention messages, given its impact on risk for STI acquisition.
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ABSTRACT: Intimate partner violence (IPV) has been associated with risk for HIV infection. This cross-sectional study tested the hypothesis that fear of violent consequences when negotiating condom use mediated the relation between IPV and condom use. Participants (n = 478) were recruited between March 1, 2004 and June 30, 2006 from a public clinic that treats sexually transmitted diseases in upstate New York as part of a randomized controlled trial. They completed an audio, computer-assisted, self-administered questionnaire with items on risky sexual behavior, intimate relationships, and related covariates and confounding variables. Seventeen percent of the sample reported IPV in the past three months. Recent IPV was associated with fear of violent consequences to requests for condom use, and such fear was associated with inconsistent condom use. Women who reported IPV also reported greater difficulties in negotiating safer sex behaviors with their abusers. So fear of violent consequences appeared to hinder their ability to protect themselves against HIV infection. The results were consistent with fear of violent consequences mediating the relationship between IPV and condom use. Health care providers involved in HIV prevention and sexual risk reduction interventions need to address IPV and, more specifically, fear of IPV when negotiating safer sex as part of their services for providing more comprehensive care to the women they serve.Women & Health 01/2013; 53(8):795-807. · 1.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To examine associations between (1) youth violence victimization and perpetration and later sexually transmitted infections (STI) and (2) parent-family and school connectedness and later STI, and to explore the moderating role of connectedness on the associations between youth violence victimization and perpetration and later STI. We used data from Waves I and IV of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, which provided a baseline weighted sample of 14,800 respondents. We used logistic regression to examine associations between youth violence and connectedness with self-reported ever STI diagnosis, including gonorrhea, chlamydia, syphilis, genital herpes, genital warts or human papillomavirus, or human immunodeficiency virus. If participants reported having an STI at Wave I they were excluded from the analysis. Controlling for biological sex, race/ethnicity, age, parent's highest education level, and parent's marital status, both youth violence victimization and perpetration were associated with an increased risk of later STI (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.27, 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.07-1.52; and AOR, 1.21, 95% CI, 1.04-1.41, respectively). Parent-family and school connectedness in adolescence were associated with a decreased risk for later STI (AOR, .96, 95% CI, .95-.98; and AOR, .97, 95% CI, .95-.99, respectively); however, connectedness did not moderate the associations between nonsexual violence involvement and later STI. These results indicate that youth violence victimization and perpetration may be risk factors for STI later in life. Conversely, parent-family and school connectedness in adolescence appear to protect against subsequent STI. The findings suggest that provider efforts to address youth violence and connectedness in adolescence can promote positive sexual health outcomes in adulthood.Journal of Adolescent Health 11/2013; · 2.97 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Violence against women perpetrated by their intimate partners is a social problem with adverse health consequences. Intimate partner violence has acute and chronic as well as direct and indirect health consequences related to physical, psychological, and reproductive health. Studies exploring relationships of intimate partner violence and health consequences are rare in Nepal. Hence, this study aimed to examine the relationships between intimate partner violence and sexually transmitted infections. This study used data from the nationally representative Nepal Demographic Health Survey 2011, which collected data through a two-stage complex sampling technique. Women 15-49 years were asked about domestic violence including intimate partner violence. For this analysis, 3,084 currently married women were included. Questions about domestic violence were adapted from the Conflict Tactic Scale. Relationships between different forms of physical and sexual intimate partner violence and reported signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted infections were examined using multiple logistic regression analysis. Approximately 15% of currently young and middle-aged married women experienced some form of violence in the last 12 months. About one in four women who were exposed to physical and sexual intimate partner violence reported sexually transmitted infection in the last 12 months. The odds of getting sexually transmitted infection were 1.88 [95% CI:1.29, 2.73] times higher among women exposed to any form of intimate partner violence in the last 12 months compared to women not exposed to any form of intimate partner violence. Intimate partner violence was common among currently married women in Nepal. Being exposed to intimate partner violence and getting signs and symptoms of sexually transmitted disease were found to be associated. Integration of intimate partner violence prevention and reproductive health programs is needed to reduce the burden of sexually transmitted disease among currently married women.International Journal of Women's Health 01/2014; 6:75-82.