The Posttrial Effect of Oral Periodic Presumptive Treatment for Vaginal Infections on the Incidence of Bacterial Vaginosis and Lactobacillus Colonization

Department of Epidemiology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98104, USA.
Sexually transmitted diseases (Impact Factor: 2.84). 05/2012; 39(5):361-5. DOI: 10.1097/OLQ.0b013e31824790d7
Source: PubMed


We previously demonstrated a decrease in bacterial vaginosis (BV) and an increase in Lactobacillus colonization among randomized controlled trial (RCT) participants who received monthly oral periodic presumptive treatment (PPT; 2 g metronidazole + 150 mg fluconazole). Posttrial data were analyzed to test the hypothesis that the treatment effect would persist after completion of 1 year of PPT.
Data were obtained from women who completed all 12 RCT visits and attended ≥ 1 posttrial visit within 120 days after completion of the RCT. We used Andersen-Gill proportional hazards models to estimate the posttrial effect of the intervention on the incidence of BV by Gram stain and detection of Lactobacillus species by culture.
The analysis included 165 subjects (83 active and 82 placebo). The posttrial incidence of BV was 260 per 100 person-years in the intervention arm versus 358 per 100 person-years in the placebo arm (hazard ratio = 0.76; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-1.12). The posttrial incidence of Lactobacillus colonization was 180 per 100 person-years in the intervention arm versus 127 per 100 person-years in the placebo arm (hazard ratio = 1.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.85-2.71).
Despite a decrease in BV and an increase in Lactobacillus colonization during the RCT, the effect of PPT was not sustained at the same level after cessation of the intervention. New interventions that reduce BV recurrence and promote Lactobacillus colonization without the need for ongoing treatment are needed.

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Available from: Jennifer Balkus, Nov 07, 2014
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    • "In summary, from this longitudinal analysis of data from a randomized clinical trial, we report a relatively high rate of RBV, though lower than in some previous studies [24,25], among FSWs HIV seronegative at baseline. Some common risk factors for a single BV episode were associated with RBV while others were not. "
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    ABSTRACT: BackgroundData on risk factors of recurrent bacterial vaginosis (RBV) are still scarce. We used data from female sex workers (FSW) participating in a randomized controlled microbicide trial to examine predictors of BV recurrence.MethodsTrial’s participants with at least an episode of BV which was treated and/or followed by a negative BV result and at least one subsequent visit offering BV testing were included in the analysis. Behavioural and medical data were collected monthly while laboratory testing for STI and genital tract infections were performed quarterly. The Andersen-Gill proportional hazards model was used to determine predictors of BV recurrence both in bivariate and multivariate analyses.Results440 women were included and the incidence rate for RBV was 20.8 recurrences/100 person-months (95% confidence interval (CI) =18.1–23.4). In the multivariate analysis controlling for the study site, recent vaginal cleansing as reported at baseline with adjusted hazard-ratio (aHR)=1.30, 95% CI = 1.02-1.64 increased the risk of BV recurrence, whereas consistent condom use (CCU) with the primary partner (aHR=0.68, 95% CI=0.49-0.93) and vaginal candidiasis (aHR=0.70, 95% CI=0.53-0.93), both treated as time-dependent variables, were associated with decreased risk of RBV.ConclusionThis study confirms the importance of counselling high-risk women with RBV about the adverse effects of vaginal cleansing and the protective effects of condom use with all types of partners for the prevention of sexually transmitted infections, including BV. More prospective studies on risk factors of BV recurrence are warranted.Trial registrationTrial registration: NCT00153777
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    ABSTRACT: The vaginal microbiota may play a role in mediating susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections, including Trichomonas vaginalis (TV). Data were analyzed from HIV-1-seronegative women participating in HIV Prevention Trials Network Protocol 035. At quarterly visits for up to 30 months, participants completed structured interviews and specimens were collected for genital tract infection testing. T. vaginalis was detected by saline microscopy. Bacterial vaginosis (BV) was characterized by Gram stain using the Nugent score (BV = 7-10; intermediate = 4-6; normal = 0-3 [reference group]). Cox proportional hazards models stratified by study site were used to assess the association between Nugent score category at the prior quarterly visit and TV acquisition. In this secondary analysis, 2920 participants from Malawi, South Africa, United States, Zambia, and Zimbabwe contributed 16,259 follow-up visits. Bacterial vaginosis was detected at 5680 (35%) visits, and TV was detected at 400 (2.5%) visits. Adjusting for age, marital status, hormonal contraceptive use, unprotected sex in the last week and TV at baseline, intermediate Nugent score, and BV at the prior visit were associated with an increased risk of TV (intermediate score: adjusted hazard ratio [aHR], 1.73; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.21-2.19; BV: aHR, 2.40; 95% CI, 1.92-3.00). Sensitivity analyses excluding 211 participants with TV at baseline were similar to those from the full study population (intermediate score: aHR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.10-2.14; BV: aHR, 2.23; 95% CI, 1.75-2.84). Women with a Nugent score higher than 3 were at an increased risk for acquiring TV. If this relationship is causal, interventions that improve the vaginal microbiota could contribute to reductions in TV incidence.
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    ABSTRACT: While resistance to HIV transmission is due to multiple mechanisms such as the epithelium, a lower genital tract microbiota dominated by Lactobacillus appears to play an important role. This article reviews selected recent research on genital tract microbiota in women including how microbiota impacts HIV resistance and factors affecting Lactobacillus colonization.
    American Journal Of Reproductive Immunology 03/2014; 71(6). DOI:10.1111/aji.12232 · 2.44 Impact Factor
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