Cognitive-behavioral guided self-help for eating disorders: effectiveness and scalability.
ABSTRACT Given the well-documented shortage of cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for eating disorders, there is a compelling need for advances in dissemination. Guided self-help based on cognitive-behavioral principles (CBTgsh) provides a robust means of improving implementation and scalability of evidence-based treatment for eating disorders. It is a brief, cost-effective treatment that can be implemented by a wide range of mental health providers, including non-specialists, via face-to-face contact and internet-based technology. Controlled studies have shown that CBTgsh can be an effective treatment for binge eating disorder and bulimia nervosa, although it is contraindicated for anorexia nervosa. Several studies have shown that CBTgsh can be as effective as more complex specialty therapies and that it is not necessarily contraindicated for patients with comorbid conditions. Mental health providers with relatively minimal professional credentials have in some studies obtained results comparable to specialized clinicians. Establishing the nature of optimal "guidance" in CBTgsh and the level of expertise and training required for effective implementation is a research priority. Existing manuals used in CBTgsh are outdated and can be improved by incorporating the principles of enhanced transdiagnostic CBT. Obstacles to wider adoption of CBTgsh are identified.
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ABSTRACT: Introduction Binge Eating Disorders is a clinical syndrome recently coded as an autonomous diagnosis in DSM-5. Individuals affected by Binge Eating Disorder (BED) show significantly lower quality of life and perceived health and higher psychological distress compared to the non-BED obese population. BED treatment is complex due to clinical and psychological reasons but also to high drop-out and poor stability of achieved goals. The purpose of this review is to explore the available data on this topic, outlining the state-of-the-art on both diagnostic issues and most effective treatment strategies. Methods We identified studies published in the last 6 years searching the MeSH Term “binge eating disorder”, with specific regard to classification, diagnosis and treatment, in major computerized literature databases including: Medline, PubMed, PsychINFO and Science Direct. Results A total of 233 studies were found and, among them, 71 were selected and included in the review. Review Although Binge Eating Disorder diagnostic criteria showed empirical consistency, core psychopathology traits should be taken into account to address treatment strategies. The available body of evidence shows psychological treatments as first line interventions, even if their efficacy on weight loss needs further exploration. Behavioral and self-help interventions evidenced some efficacy in patients with lower psychopathological features. Pharmacological treatment plays an important role, but data are still limited by small samples and short follow-up times. The role of bariatric surgery, a recommended treatment for obesity that is often required also by patients with Binge Eating Disorder, deserves more specific studies. Combining different interventions at the same time does not add significant advantages, planning sequential treatments, with more specific interventions for non-responders, seems to be a more promising strategy. Conclusions Despite its recent inclusion in DSM-5 as an autonomous disease, BED diagnosis and treatment strategies deserve further deepening. A multidisciplinary and stepped-care treatment appears as a promising management strategy. Longer and more structured follow-up studies are required, in order to enlighten long term outcomes and to overcome the high dropout rates affecting current studies.BMC Psychiatry 04/2015; 15. DOI:10.1186/s12888-015-0445-6 · 2.24 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The research-practice gap is of concern in the treatment of eating disorders. Despite the existence of empirically supported treatments, few receive them. The barriers to wider dissemination and implementation of evidence-based treatment include clinician attitudes towards such treatments and the lack of sufficient numbers of suitably trained therapists to provide treatment. In this review we discuss these barriers in the context of the wider issue of the dissemination and implementation of psychological treatments and review the research with regard to the treatment of eating disorders. Particular emphasis is placed on examining recent efforts to expand the availability and reach of treatments by making treatment delivery and training more scalable. We highlight promising developments and areas where further research is needed.Current Psychiatry Reports 03/2015; 17(3):551. DOI:10.1007/s11920-015-0551-7 · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Objective: We examined rapid response among obese patients with binge-eating disorder (BED) in a randomized clinical trial testing antiobesity medication and self-help cognitive-behavioral therapy (shCBT), alone and in combination, in primary-care settings. Method: One hundred four obese patients with BED were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: sibutramine, placebo, shCBT + sibutramine, or shCBT + placebo. Treatments were delivered by generalist primary-care physicians and the medications were given double-blind. Independent assessments were performed by trained and monitored doctoral research clinicians monthly throughout treatment, posttreatment (4 months), and at 6- and 12-month follow-ups (i.e., 16 months after randomization). Rapid response, defined as ≥65% reduction in binge eating by the fourth treatment week, was used to predict outcomes. Results: Rapid response characterized 47% of patients, was unrelated to demographic and baseline clinical characteristics, and was significantly associated, prospectively, with remission from binge eating at posttreatment (51% vs. 9% for nonrapid responders), 6-month (53% vs. 23.6%), and 12-month (46.9% vs. 23.6%) follow-ups. Mixed-effects model analyses revealed that rapid response was significantly associated with greater decreases in binge-eating or eating-disorder psychopathology, depression, and percent weight loss. Discussion: Our findings, based on a diverse obese patient group receiving medication and shCBT for BED in primary-care settings, indicate that patients who have a rapid response achieve good clinical outcomes through 12-month follow-ups after ending treatment. Rapid response represents a strong prognostic indicator of clinically meaningful outcomes, even in low-intensity medication and self-help interventions. Rapid response has important clinical implications for stepped-care treatment models for BED. Clinical Trial Registration: clinicaltrials.gov: NCT00537810 (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 01/2015; 83(2). DOI:10.1037/a0038635 · 4.85 Impact Factor