Well-differentiated Hepatocellular Carcinoma Detected as Hypovascularity by Only CT during Hepatic Arteriography

Department of Gastroenterology, Kobe Asahi Hospital, Japan.
Internal Medicine (Impact Factor: 0.9). 01/2012; 51(8):885-90. DOI: 10.2169/internalmedicine.51.6904
Source: PubMed


We describe a well-differentiated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) with alcohol-related liver cirrhosis in a 69-year-old man. Ultrasonography (US) disclosed a 10 mm hypoechoic nodule in segment 4; Sonazoid contrast-enhanced US and gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed no defect in either the Kupffer phase or the hepatobiliary phase. Computed tomography during hepatic arteriography (CTHA), however, revealed a hypovascular nodule, but CT during arterial portography showed no perfusion defect. Histological analysis indicated a well-differentiated HCC. Thus, our detection of well-differentiated HCC disclosed by only CTHA attested to the efficiency of this modality, suggesting that it is more sensitive than Gd-EOB-GTPA-enhanced MRI.

14 Reads
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Despite recent advances in imaging techniques of the liver, it remains difficult to detect small precancerous lesions or hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) in cirrhotic livers. The goal of this study was to determine the prevalence of undetected small HCCs in liver explants of adult cirrhotic patients undergoing liver transplantation and to evaluate the association of HCCs with hepatic lesions considered premalignant. Eighty consecutive liver explants were analyzed for the presence of macroscopically atypical nodules, which were then pathologically described as macroregenerative nodules, high-grade dysplastic nodules, areas of small liver cell dysplasia, and HCCs. The prevalence of HCC was 17.5% with a mean size of 11.6 mm. HCCs were more frequently found in men (22%) than in women (4.8%; P < 0.05) and in patients older than 50 years at the time of liver transplantation (35.7% vs. 7.7% in patients younger than 50 years; P < 0.05). The prevalence of HCCs was identical in alcoholic and viral cirrhosis. HCC nodules were significantly associated with the presence of high-grade dysplastic nodules. Small HCCs and precancerous lesions are frequently found in cirrhotic liver explants, especially in men older than 50 years. This finding should be included in the decision-making analysis for liver transplantation.
    Gastroenterology 12/1996; 111(6):1587-92. DOI:10.1016/S0016-5085(96)70021-5 · 16.72 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the utility of gadolinium-ethoxybenzyl-diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for the quantitative evaluation of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and dysplastic nodules in the hepatobiliary phase. The subjects comprised 12 patients with 27 lesions (22 HCCs and 5 dysplastic nodules). Chemical-shift-selective fat-suppressed T1-weighted sequences were obtained before and 10, 20, and 40 min after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA. Quantitative analyses were performed with the enhancement ratio of the lesion and the contrast-to-noise (C/N) ratio. The enhancement ratios of the HCCs were 44.0+/-36.5, 44.7+/-46.8, and 47.7+/-52.8 (%) at 10, 20, and 40 min, respectively, after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA. The enhancement ratios of the dysplastic nodules were 36.2+/-34.3, 44.3+/-37.3, and 40.1+/-46.8 (%). The C/N ratios of the HCCs were 0.2+/-6.6 for the precontrast image, and -9.2+/-12.6, -9.9+/-14.8, and -12.7+/-15.7 at 10, 20, and 40 min, respectively, after the injection of Gd-EOB-DTPA. The C/N ratios of the dysplastic nodules were 1.4+/-8.0, -13.7+/-11.1, -13.3+/-7.6, and -13.1+/-10.4. No significant differences were found between the HCCs and the dysplastic nodules in the enhancement ratio and the C/N ratio. Only two HCCs showed a positive C/N ratio value, and these HCCs were pathologically confirmed to be a well differentiated and a moderately differentiated carcinoma, respectively. HCCs and some of the dysplastic nodules showed hypointensity in the hepatobiliary phase in Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI. No specific enhancement was observed, regardless of tumor differentiation.
    Magnetic Resonance in Medical Sciences 02/2005; 4(1):1-9. DOI:10.2463/mrms.4.1 · 1.48 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: To clarify the factors that predict enhancement of the liver parenchyma in hepatocyte-phase of gadolinium ethoxybenzyl diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (Gd-EOB-DTPA)-enhanced MR imaging. Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced hepatocyte-phase MR images of 198 patients with chronic liver diseases (Child-Pugh class A in 112 patients, class B in 74 patients, and class C in 12 patients) were retrospectively analyzed. The hepatocyte-phase images were obtained using fat-suppressed T1-weighted gradient-echo images with a 3D acquisition sequence 10 min and 20 min after IV administration of Gd-EOB-DTPA (0.025 mmol/kg body weight). The quantitative liver-spleen contrast ratio (Q-LSC) was calculated using the signal intensities of the liver and spleen. Serum albumin levels, total bilirubin levels, prothrombin activity, and the results of indocyanine green clearance tests (ICGs) were recorded and correlated with the Q-LSC. Logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze which factors predict sufficient liver enhancement using a Q-LSC of 1.5 as a cutoff value. Only ICGs and Child-Pugh classifications showed a statistically significant correlation with the Q-LSC. Logistic regression analysis showed that ICGs were the only factors that accurately predicted liver enhancement on hepatocyte-phase images. ICGs were found to be predictors of sufficient liver enhancement on hepatocyte-phase images.
    Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging 11/2009; 30(5):1042-6. DOI:10.1002/jmri.21956 · 3.21 Impact Factor
Show more