Diagnosis of small-bowel metastasis of hepatocellular carcinoma by double-balloon enteroscopy.
ABSTRACT Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a major cause of cancer-related deaths around the world. Nearly half of patients with HCC display metastatic disease at the time of initial diagnosis, frequently involving the liver, bone, brain, lungs, and adrenal glands, but gastrointestinal involvement is rare. Melena occurring secondary to a metastatic tumor from HCC is particularly rare. Herein, we present a case of melena secondary to metastatic HCC after chemoradiation to lung and brain metastases from HCC, diagnosed preoperatively by double-balloon enteroscopy. To the best of our knowledge, this represents the first such case to be reported.
60-Year-old man had been diagnosed with hepatitis B virus-associated hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). He was readmitted for investigation of general fatigue and iron-deficiency anemia. Esophagogastroduodenoscopy, total colonoscopy, and CT failed to identify any cause for gastrointestinal bleeding. Double-balloon enteroscopy, however, revealed small bowel metastasis from HCC preoperatively. After 5 days of conservative management, segmental small bowel resection and end-to-end anastomosis were performed. The histological appearances were considered typical for moderately differentiated HCC. DISSCUSSION: Endoscopic findings of gastrointestinal metastasis from HCC vary, such as raised and centrally ulcerated lesions, polypoid tumors, or submucosal tumors. Immunohistochemical findings are thus key to differentiating HCC from adenocarcinoma in the diagnosis of GIT metastasis. Some patients with gastrointestinal bleeding remain undiagnosed even after upper endoscopy and total colonoscopy, and most such patients will display bleeding sites in the small bowel. Video capsule endoscopy and DBE have been introduced recently for the evaluation of the small bowel. DBE, which was developed by Yamamoto et al.,(5) allowed us to obtain biopsy specimens, circumventing one limitation of capsule endoscopy. In this case, DBE contributed significantly to diagnosis and treatment.
DBE thus seems to represent a valuable method, particularly in the preoperative setting, due to the possibility of precisely identifying the tumor site and achieving preoperative diagnosis.
Article: Pathology of hepatocellular carcinoma in Japan. 232 Consecutive cases autopsied in ten years.[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: The pathologic findings of 232 consecutive cases of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) autopsied during the past ten years at Kurume, Japan, were analyzed from the point of view of global epidemiology, in relation to clinical feature, and in regard to incidence, age, sex, etiologic factors, size of liver, changes in noncancer parenchyma, gross type of tumor, extrahepatic metastases, intravascular and intraductal growths, cancer cell histology, hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) in hepatocytes and cancer cells, liver cell dysplasia, and frequency and clinicopathologic characteristics of minute HCC. Furthermore, postmortem hepatic arteriography and portography were done in 152 livers for comparison with gross anatomy and celiac angiograms. It was found that: (1) epidemiologically, HCC in Japan is distinct from that in the West that it is frequently encapsulated, livers are generally small because of frequent and advanced cirrhosis and small cancer, minute HCC, is not uncommon at autopsy, cirrhosis most commonly associated is the one with thin stroma and medium size nodules, and micronodular cirrhosis is very rare despite frequent alcohol abuse; (2) HCC is increasing in incidence; (3) HBsAg is frequently found in parenchyma; (4) liver cell dysplasia is indirectly related to HBsAg with no evidence for premalignancy; (5) the lung is the most frequent site of metastasis but peritoneal dissemination is unusual; (6) intraportal tumor growth is very common and the hepatic vein is less frequently affected; (7) growth in the major bile duct is frequently associated with intraportal growth and clinically presents as obstructive jaundice; and (8) tumor is supplied solely by arteries and celiac arteriograms are closely correlated with gross pathologic findings.Cancer 04/1983; 51(5):863-77. · 4.77 Impact Factor