Multigene molecular phylogenetics reveals true morels (Morchella) are especially species-rich in China.

Key Laboratory of Biodiversity and Biogeography, Kunming Institute of Botany, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Lanhei Road, No. 132, Kunming, 650201 Yunnan Province, PR China.
Fungal Genetics and Biology (Impact Factor: 3.26). 04/2012; 49(6):455-69. DOI: 10.1016/j.fgb.2012.03.006
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT The phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in China was estimated by initially analyzing nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences from 361 specimens collected in 21 provinces during the 2003-2011 growing seasons, together with six collections obtained on loan from three Chinese herbaria. Based on the results of this preliminary screen, 40 Esculenta Clade (yellow morels) and 30 Elata Clade (black morels) were chosen to represent the full range of phylogenetic diversity sampled. To investigate their species limits, we generated DNA sequences from portions of three protein-coding genes (RPB1, RPB2 and EF-1α) and domains D1 and D2 of the nuclear large subunit (LSU) rDNA for all 70 collections. To fully assess evolutionary relationships, previously published multilocus DNA sequence data representing all known Morchella species was included in this study. Phylogenetic analyses employing maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood frameworks resolved 30 species in China compared with 22 in Europe and 19 within North America. Eleven novel phylogenetically distinct species were discovered in China, including two species within the Elata Clade and nine within the Esculenta Clade. Of the 30 species in China, 20 appear to be endemic, nine were also represented in Europe, and four putatively fire-adapted species have disjunct distributions in China, Europe and western North America. Although the diversification time estimates place the Esculenta Clade in China as early as the late Cretaceous and the Elata Clade by the early Oligocene, 27 of the 30 species evolved between the middle Miocene 12Mya and present.

  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Species of the genus Phylloporus in China were investigated based on morphology and molecular phylogenetic analysis of a three-locus (nrLSU, ITS and tef-1a) DNA sequence dataset. Twenty-one phylogenetic species were recognized among the studied collections. Seven of them are described as new: P. brunneiceps, P. imbricatus, P. maculatus, P. pachycystidiatus, P. rubeolus, P. rubrosquamosus, and P. yunnanensis. In addition, four of them correspond with the previous morphology-based taxa: P. bellus, P. luxiensis, P. parvisporus, and P. rufescens. The remaining ten phylogenetic species were not described due to the paucity of the materials. A key to the Chinese morphologically recognizable taxa was provided. A preliminary biogeographical analysis showed that (1) Pylloporus species in East Asia and Southeast Asia are mostly closely related, (2) species pairs or closely related species of Phylloporus between East Asia and North/Central America are relatively common, and (3) the biogeographic relationship of Phylloporus between East Asia and Europe was supported by only a single species pair. Unexpectedly, no taxa common either to both Europe and East Asia, or to both East Asia and North/Central America, were uncovered. Clades look to have taxa from both sides of the Pacific and Europe/Asia though.
    Fungal diversity 58(1). · 5.32 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Aim The geographical distributions of most fungal species are still poorly known; consequently, their origins and historical distributions remain largely understudied. High levels of cryptic diversity, scarce fossil records and poorly sampled regions can explain some of these shortcomings. We extensively sampled an iconic group of edible ectomycorrhizal (EM) fungi, Amanita caesarea and its allies, in order to infer evolutionary patterns on a global scale. Location Worldwide. Methods DNA sequences from three nuclear genes were derived for 120 collections. Divergence times were estimated using fossil calibrations within the Agaricomycetes, followed by more inclusive (A. sect. Caesareae + outgroup) root-recalibrated estimations. Ultrametric trees from BEAST were used in ancestral-area reconstructions and to infer geodispersal models. They were further used in diversification rates analyses using maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods. Results Molecular dating and ancestral-area reconstruction indicated a Palaeotropical origin of A. sect. Caesareae between the Palaeocene and Eocene. Dispersal events to more temperate regions in Mediterranean Europe, eastern Australia and North and Central America, occurred mostly during the Late Miocene and Pliocene. A boreotropical model was supported as the most likely mode of geodispersal. Diversification rates were significantly higher in the New World than in the Old World. Main conclusions We present evidence that this group of edible EM mushrooms was ancestrally Palaeotropical from around the Eocene to the Late Miocene, reaching temperate insular and continental areas during the Late Miocene and Pliocene. The mode of dispersal is largely consistent with Wolfe’s boreotropical hypothesis. We also found that the overall diversification rate has been rather constant, but has increased relatively recently in the New World, possibly as a result of the well-documented Plio-Pleistocene climatic fluctuations.
    Journal of Biogeography 08/2014; · 4.86 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Species of the genus Sparassis in East Asia were investigated using morphology and DNA sequences data. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the nuclear gene coding for the ribosomal large subunit (nLSU) and partial gene coding RNA polymerase subunit II (rpb2) strongly supported lineages corresponding to morphological features. Three taxa, S. subalpina, S. cystidiosa f. flabelliformis and S. latifolia were recognized from East Asia, and the former two taxa are new to science. The occurrence of S. latifolia in Japan and in the Russian Far East was confirmed. Geographical divergences of Sparassis in the Holarctic were observed. Most species have relatively narrow distribution ranges, and taxa with intercontinental distributions were not detected. Divergence of species in the Northern Hemisphere in different clades appears to have taken place at different times: the S. latifolia-crispa-radicata species complex appears to have undergone a recent radiation, while the S. subalpina-brevipes-spathularia species complex represents a relatively ancient speciation.
    Mycological Progress 12(2). · 1.61 Impact Factor