Multigene molecular phylogenetics reveals true morels (Morchella) are especially species-rich in China.
ABSTRACT The phylogenetic diversity of true morels (Morchella) in China was estimated by initially analyzing nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA sequences from 361 specimens collected in 21 provinces during the 2003-2011 growing seasons, together with six collections obtained on loan from three Chinese herbaria. Based on the results of this preliminary screen, 40 Esculenta Clade (yellow morels) and 30 Elata Clade (black morels) were chosen to represent the full range of phylogenetic diversity sampled. To investigate their species limits, we generated DNA sequences from portions of three protein-coding genes (RPB1, RPB2 and EF-1α) and domains D1 and D2 of the nuclear large subunit (LSU) rDNA for all 70 collections. To fully assess evolutionary relationships, previously published multilocus DNA sequence data representing all known Morchella species was included in this study. Phylogenetic analyses employing maximum parsimony and maximum likelihood frameworks resolved 30 species in China compared with 22 in Europe and 19 within North America. Eleven novel phylogenetically distinct species were discovered in China, including two species within the Elata Clade and nine within the Esculenta Clade. Of the 30 species in China, 20 appear to be endemic, nine were also represented in Europe, and four putatively fire-adapted species have disjunct distributions in China, Europe and western North America. Although the diversification time estimates place the Esculenta Clade in China as early as the late Cretaceous and the Elata Clade by the early Oligocene, 27 of the 30 species evolved between the middle Miocene 12Mya and present.
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ABSTRACT: Arguably more mycophiles hunt true morels (Morchella) during their brief fruiting season each spring in the northern hemisphere than any other wild edible fungus. Concerns about overharvesting by individual collectors and commercial enterprises make it essential that science-based management practices and conservation policies are developed to ensure thesustainability of commercial harvests and to protect and preserve morel species diversity. Therefore, the primary objectives of the present study were to: (i) investigate the utility of the ITS rDNA locus for identifying Morchella species, using phylogenetic species previously inferred from multilocus DNA sequence data as a reference; and (ii) clarify insufficiently identified sequences and determine whether the named sequences in GenBank were identified correctly. To this end, we generated 553 Morchella ITS rDNA sequences and downloaded 312 additional ones generated by other researchers from GenBank using emerencia and analyzed them phylogenetically. Three major findings emerged: (i) ITS rDNA sequences were useful in identifying 48/62 (77.4%) of the known phylospecies; however, they failed to identify 12 of the22 species within the species-rich Elata Subclade and two closely related species in the Esculenta Clade; (ii) at least 66% of the named Morchella sequences in GenBank are misidentified; and (iii) ITS rDNA sequences of up to six putatively novel Morchella species were represented inGenBank. Recognizing the need for a dedicated Web-accessible reference database to facilitate the rapid identification of known and novel species, we constructed Morchella MLST(http://www.cbs.knaw.nl/morchella/), which can be queried with ITS rDNA sequences and those of the four other genes used in our prior multilocus molecular systematic studies of thischarismatic genus.Mycologia 07/2012; · 2.11 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Species of the genus Phylloporus in China were investigated based on morphology and molecular phylogenetic analysis of a three-locus (nrLSU, ITS and tef-1a) DNA sequence dataset. Twenty-one phylogenetic species were recognized among the studied collections. Seven of them are described as new: P. brunneiceps, P. imbricatus, P. maculatus, P. pachycystidiatus, P. rubeolus, P. rubrosquamosus, and P. yunnanensis. In addition, four of them correspond with the previous morphology-based taxa: P. bellus, P. luxiensis, P. parvisporus, and P. rufescens. The remaining ten phylogenetic species were not described due to the paucity of the materials. A key to the Chinese morphologically recognizable taxa was provided. A preliminary biogeographical analysis showed that (1) Pylloporus species in East Asia and Southeast Asia are mostly closely related, (2) species pairs or closely related species of Phylloporus between East Asia and North/Central America are relatively common, and (3) the biogeographic relationship of Phylloporus between East Asia and Europe was supported by only a single species pair. Unexpectedly, no taxa common either to both Europe and East Asia, or to both East Asia and North/Central America, were uncovered. Clades look to have taxa from both sides of the Pacific and Europe/Asia though.Fungal diversity 58(1). · 5.32 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Species of the genus Sparassis in East Asia were investigated using morphology and DNA sequences data. Phylogenetic analyses inferred from sequences of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS), the nuclear gene coding for the ribosomal large subunit (nLSU) and partial gene coding RNA polymerase subunit II (rpb2) strongly supported lineages corresponding to morphological features. Three taxa, S. subalpina, S. cystidiosa f. flabelliformis and S. latifolia were recognized from East Asia, and the former two taxa are new to science. The occurrence of S. latifolia in Japan and in the Russian Far East was confirmed. Geographical divergences of Sparassis in the Holarctic were observed. Most species have relatively narrow distribution ranges, and taxa with intercontinental distributions were not detected. Divergence of species in the Northern Hemisphere in different clades appears to have taken place at different times: the S. latifolia-crispa-radicata species complex appears to have undergone a recent radiation, while the S. subalpina-brevipes-spathularia species complex represents a relatively ancient speciation.Mycological Progress 12(2). · 1.61 Impact Factor