The role of vaccination in rabies prevention. Curr Opin Virol 2:309-314
ABSTRACT Rabies vaccines have evolved from the first crude nerve tissue vaccines developed by Louis Pasteur and his colleagues in 1885. Currently, safe and efficacious rabies vaccines for humans and animals are produced in several cell culture systems with 10 vaccine regimens recommended by WHO and/or ACIP for pre-exposure and post-exposure prophylaxis in humans. Rabies vaccines are a critical component in the strategy to reduce the dog rabies, the cause of 98% of all global human rabies deaths. However, eliminating rabies in the reservoir animal species is not possible without an intersectoral approach including collaboration between animal and human health experts. There is an urgent need to establish national risk assessment systems in regions where surveillance is limited to non-existent.
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- "RABV is a compact negative-sense, single-stranded RNA virus. Rabies vaccine is one of the oldest biologics used in humans for both pre-and post-exposure prophylaxis . Human rabies vaccination does not require adjuvant priming, and long-lasting immune responses are documented   . "
ABSTRACT: Immunocontraceptive vaccines may be an alternative to surgical sterilization. Dual rabies vaccination and dog population management is a helpful tool for rabies prevention. A synthetic gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) peptide coupled to a carrier protein or T cell epitope is efficacious in inducing immunocontraception in a variety of mammals. However, virus-vectored GnRH recombinant vaccines have advantages over the conjugation method. In a previous in vitro study, we were able to insert a GnRH-coding sequence into the rabies virus (RABV) glycoprotein (G) gene, and the recombinant viruses grew to high titers in cells. Here, we further focused on the RABV G in accepting various copy numbers of GnRH. We demonstrated although RABV G protein with up to 4 copies of GnRH was well expressed, the recombinant virus was recovered only when 2 copies of GnRH (20 amino acids) were incorporated into the G, indicating a possible insertion limit in making a full infectious clone. The investigation provides insight into the utility of RABV G as a carrier for small peptides and its suitability for vaccine studies. Following our previous study, we selected ERAg3p/2GnRH and tested the construct in mice. The vaccine induced ⩾80% infertility after three doses without any adjuvant, in live (8 of 10 mice infertility) or inactivated (13 of 14 mice infertility) formulations; while the pregnancy rate was 100% (10 of 10 mice) in the controls. This initial success of immunocontraception in mice is promising, and we are now optimizing the vaccine formulation by using adjuvants and exploring novel delivery methods to minimize the dosage.Trials in Vaccinology 12/2014; 3:11–18. DOI:10.1016/j.trivac.2013.11.003
Article: Response to letter.Journal of Travel Medicine 10/2012; 19(6):395-6. DOI:10.1111/j.1708-8305.2012.00649_2.x · 1.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: More than 50,000 people die of rabies each year; most are children in developing countries, and almost all have been bitten by dogs. Eliminating canine rabies throughout the world would save thousands of lives and would reduce the economic impact of the disease by dramatically reducing the requirement for postexposure prophylaxis (PEP). Lengthy experience in the industrialized countries and ongoing programs in Latin America, Africa, and Asia have shown that the elimination of rabies in dogs is an achievable goal. The presence of canine rabies in developing countries is associated with poverty, and most deaths occur in the lowest socioeconomic sectors. To be successful, national rabies control programs should share responsibility with local communities for prevention and control activities and maintaining disease-free status. Legislation should be adapted to local conditions and the realities of dog ownership. While the provision of PEP to all bite victims is affordable in many countries, it is usually beyond the capacity of impoverished nations, which deal with many other health priorities. Ministries of health should provide PEP, either free or with a charge preferably at a subsidized price, replacing the current system in many countries, in which biologics are sold by government-owned and private clinics at a cost beyond the means of bite victims. The public health sector should assume responsibility when animal control strategies are not effectively implemented or when PEP is not administered correctly or is not available. A global strategy is needed to identify gaps in surveillance and diagnosis, improve access to PEP and enhance canine immunization and population management. Such approaches based on a "One Health" model should be coordinated across regions, and should extend control efforts to other dog-related zoonoses. This article introduces a symposium in Antiviral Research on the elimination of canine rabies.Antiviral research 03/2013; 98(2). DOI:10.1016/j.antiviral.2013.03.011 · 3.94 Impact Factor