Serotype replacement after pneumococcal vaccination

The Lancet (Impact Factor: 45.22). 04/2012; 379(9824):1387-8; author reply 1388-9. DOI: 10.1016/S0140-6736(12)60589-3
Source: PubMed
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    ABSTRACT: Streptococcus pneumoniae is a common human pathogen that accounts for >1 million deaths every year. Colonization of the nasopharynx by S. pneumoniae precedes pulmonary and other invasive diseases and, therefore, is a promising target for intervention. Because the receptors scavenger receptor A (SRA), macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), and mannose receptor (MR) have been identified as nonopsonic receptors for S. pneumoniae in the lung, we used scavenger receptor knockout mice to study the roles of these receptors in the clearance of S. pneumoniae from the nasopharynx. MARCO(-/-), but not SRA(-/-) or MR(-/-), mice had significantly impaired clearance of S. pneumoniae from the nasopharynx. In addition to impairment in bacterial clearance, MARCO(-/-) mice had abrogated cytokine production and cellular recruitment to the nasopharynx following colonization. Furthermore, macrophages from MARCO(-/-) mice were deficient in cytokine and chemokine production, including type I IFNs, in response to S. pneumoniae. MARCO was required for maximal TLR2- and nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-containing (Nod)2-dependent NF-κB activation and signaling that ultimately resulted in clearance. Thus, MARCO is an important component of anti-S. pneumoniae responses in the murine nasopharynx during colonization.
    The Journal of Immunology 11/2012; 190(1). DOI:10.4049/jimmunol.1202113 · 4.92 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: The current ‘gold standard’ for serotyping pneumococci is the Quellung test. This technique is laborious and requires a certain level of training to correctly perform. Commercial pneumococcal latex agglutination serotyping reagents are available, but these are expensive. In-house production of latex agglutination reagents can be a cost-effective alternative to using commercially available reagents. This paper describes a method for the production and quality control (QC) of latex reagents, including problem solving recommendations, for pneumococcal serotyping. Here we describe a method for the production of latex agglutination reagents based on the passive adsorption of antibodies to latex particles. Sixty-five latex agglutination reagents were made using the PneuCarriage Project (PCP) method, of which 35 passed QC. The other 30 reagents failed QC due to auto-agglutination (n=2), no reactivity with target serotypes (n=8) or cross-reactivity with non-target serotypes (n=20). Dilution of antisera resulted in a further 27 reagents passing QC. The remaining three reagents passed QC when prepared without centrifugation and wash steps. Protein estimates indicated that latex reagents that failed QC when prepared using the PCP method passed when made with antiserum containing ≤ 500 μg/ml of protein. Sixty-one nasopharyngeal isolates were serotyped with our in-house latex agglutination reagents, with the results showing complete concordance with the Quellung reaction. The method described here to produce latex agglutination reagents allows simple and efficient serotyping of pneumococci and may be applicable to latex agglutination reagents for typing or identification of other microorganisms. We recommend diluting antisera or removing centrifugation and wash steps for any latex reagents that fail QC. Our latex reagents are cost-effective, technically undemanding to prepare and remain stable for long periods of time, making them ideal for use in low-income countries.
    BMC Research Notes 02/2013; 6(1):49. DOI:10.1186/1756-0500-6-49
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    ABSTRACT: Routine childhood vaccination against Streptococcus pneumoniae with PCV7 has reduced the incidence of pneumococcal disease as a result of the vaccine serotypes. However, it has also resulted in the emergence of serotypes not included in the vaccine, offsetting, but not yet overcoming, the benefits of vaccination.
    British journal of hospital medicine (London, England: 2005) 04/2013; 74(4):212-6. DOI:10.12968/hmed.2013.74.4.212 · 0.38 Impact Factor
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