Maternal Risk Factors for Peripartum Transfusion

Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Christiana Care Health System, Newark, DE 19718, USA.
Journal of Women's Health (Impact Factor: 2.05). 04/2012; 21(7):792-7. DOI: 10.1089/jwh.2011.3248
Source: PubMed


Postpartum hemorrhage remains one of the most significant maternal complications of childbirth in the United States, with peripartum transfusion the most commonly identified morbidity.
We completed a retrospective cohort study of women delivering at 20+ weeks at a large regional obstetric hospital between 2000 and 2008. Data were extracted from the institutional data warehouse; women with a potential coagulopathy were excluded. The association of maternal and obstetric factors with odds of transfusion was explored using univariate and multivariable logistic regression.
We identified 59,282 deliveries and 614 cases of transfusion, an incidence rate of 10.4/1,000 deliveries. Rates were highest for black (14.1/1,000 deliveries) and lowest for white (8.4/1,000 deliveries) women. Increased odds of perinatal transfusion were seen for women with anemia at entry to labor and delivery (odds ratio [OR] 3.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.43-3.79 for hemoglobin (Hgb) 9.5-10.5 g/dL; OR 12.65, 95% CI 10.35-15.46 for Hgb<9.5 g/dL) and those undergoing a cesarean delivery (OR 4.28, 95% CI 3.62-5.05). The excess risk associated with black race was eliminated after adjusting for anemia and other covariates. A synergistic effect of anemia with delivery method was observed. Anemia was estimated to account for 31.7% of transfusions.
Potentially modifiable factors most strongly associated with risk for transfusion were antenatal anemia and cesarean delivery, and their co-occurrence was synergistic. Anemia is an easily identified and treatable risk factor and warrants focus as part of preconception and interconception care in childbearing women.

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    • "Poor outcomes for the fetus and infant include: preterm birth, fetal growth restriction, intrauterine fetal death, low Apgar scores and infection [2]. Women with iron deficiency are also at risk of adverse effects requiring medical interventions such as red blood transfusion [3], cardiovascular problems, reduced physical and cognitive performance, reduced immune function, tiredness and increased depressive episodes [4]. Peri-partum maternal iron deficiency has also been associated with childhood developmental problems [5] and negative mother-infant interactions such as an increase in negative statements and decreased responsiveness [6]. "
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    ABSTRACT: Iron deficiency is a common nutritional deficiency amongst women of childbearing age. Peri-partum iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) is associated with significant maternal, fetal and infant morbidity. Current options for treatment are limited: these include oral iron supplementation, which can be ineffective and poorly tolerated, and red blood cell transfusions, which carry an inherent risk and should be avoided. Ferric carboxymaltose is a new treatment option that may be better tolerated.The study was designed to assess the safety and efficacy of iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) correction with intravenous ferric carboxymaltose in pregnant women with mild, moderate and severe anaemia in the second and third trimester. Prospective observational study; 65 anaemic pregnant women received ferric carboxymaltose up to 15 mg/kg between 24 and 40 weeks of pregnancy (median 35 weeks gestational age, SD 3.6). Treatment effectiveness was assessed by repeat haemoglobin (Hb) measurements and patient report of well-being in the postpartum period. Safety was assessed by analysis of adverse drug reactions and fetal heart rate monitoring during the infusion. Intravenous ferric carboxymaltose infusion significantly increased Hb values (p < 0.01) above baseline levels in all women. Increased Hb values were observed at 3 and 6 weeks post infusion and up to 8 weeks post-infusion. Ferritin values increased significantly after the infusion. Only 4 women had repeat ferritin values post-partum which remained above baseline levels. Fetal heart rate monitoring did not indicate a drug related negative impact on the fetus. Of the 29 (44.6%) women interviewed, 19 (65.5%) women reported an improvement in their well-being and 9 (31%) felt no different after the infusion. None of the women felt worse. No serious adverse effects were found and minor side effects occurred in 13 (20%) patients. Our prospective data is consistent with existing observational reports of the safe and effective use of ferric carboxymaltose in the treatment of iron deficiency anaemia in pregnancy.
    BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth 03/2014; 14(1):115. DOI:10.1186/1471-2393-14-115 · 2.19 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: To identify risk factors for transfusion and trends in transfusion rates across pregnancy and the postnatal period. Linked hospital and birth data on all births in hospitals in New South Wales, Australia, between 2001 and 2010 were used to identify blood transfusions for women during pregnancy, at birth, and in the 6 weeks postpartum. Poisson regression was used to identify risk factors for red cell transfusion in the birth admission. Separate models were fitted for cesarean and vaginal births. Between 2001 and 2010, there were 12,147 transfusions across 891,914 pregnancies, with a transfusion rate of 1.4%. The transfusion rate increased steadily from 1.2% in 2001 to 1.6% in 2010. The majority of transfusions (91%) occurred during the birth admission, and 81% of these transfusions were associated with a diagnosis of hemorrhage. Women with bleeding or platelet disorders (vaginal: number transfused 529, relative risk [RR] 7.8, 99% confidence interval [CI] 6.9-8.7, cesarean: n=592, RR 8.7, CI 7.7-9.7) and placenta previa: (vaginal n=73, RR 4.6, CI 3.4-6.3, cesarean: n=875, RR 5.7, CI 5.1-6.4) were at highest risk of transfusion. Among vaginal births, increased risk was evident for forceps (n=1,036, RR 2.8, CI 2.5-3.0) or vacuum births (n=1,073, RR 1.9, CI 1.7-2.0) compared with nonoperative births. Rates of obstetric blood product transfusion have increased by 33% since 2001, with the majority of this associated with hemorrhage. Women with bleeding or platelet disorders and placenta previa are at increased risk of transfusion and should be treated accordingly. : II.
    Obstetrics and Gynecology 01/2014; 123(1):126-33. DOI:10.1097/AOG.0000000000000054 · 5.18 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Background and Objectives To explore variation in red blood cell transfusion rates between hospitals, and the extent to which this can be explained. A secondary objective was to assess whether hospital transfusion rates are associated with maternal morbidity.Materials and Methods Linked hospital discharge and birth data were used to identify births (n = 279 145) in hospitals with at least 10 deliveries per annum between 2008 and 2010 in New South Wales, Australia. To investigate transfusion rates, a series of random-effects multilevel logistic regression models were fitted, progressively adjusting for maternal, obstetric and hospital factors. Correlations between hospital transfusion and maternal, neonatal morbidity and readmission rates were assessed.ResultsOverall, the transfusion rate was 1·4% (hospital range 0·6–2·9) across 89 hospitals. Adjusting for maternal casemix reduced the variation between hospitals by 26%. Adjustment for obstetric interventions further reduced variation by 8% and a further 39% after adjustment for hospital type (range 1·1–2·0%). At a hospital level, high transfusion rates were moderately correlated with maternal morbidity (0·59, P = 0·01), but not with low Apgar scores (0·39, P = 0·08), or readmission rates (0·18, P = 0·29).Conclusion Both casemix and practice differences contributed to the variation in transfusion rates between hospitals. The relationship between outcomes and transfusion rates was variable; however, low transfusion rates were not associated with worse outcomes.
    Vox Sanguinis 08/2014; 108(1). DOI:10.1111/vox.12186 · 2.80 Impact Factor