Genetic analysis of the promoter region of the GATA4 gene in patients with ventricular septal defects.
ABSTRACT Ventricular septal defects (VSDs) are the most common type of congenital heart diseases (CHDs). To date, the genetic causes for sporadic VSDs remain largely unknown. GATA transcription factor 4 (GATA4) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that is expressed in developing heart and adult cardiomyocytes. Mutations in the coding region of the GATA4 gene have been identified in CHD patients, including VSD. As the GATA4 factor is a dosage-sensitive regulator, we hypothesized that the promoter region variants of the GATA4 gene may be genetic causes of VSD. In this study, we analyzed the promoter region of the GATA4 gene by bidirectional sequencing in 172 VSD patients and 171 healthy controls. The results showed that 5 heterozygous sequence variants (NG_008177:g.4071T>C, NG_008177:g.4148C>A, NG_008177:g.4566C>T, NG_008177:g.4653G>T, and NG_008177:g.4690G>deletion) within the promoter region of the GATA gene were identified in 5 VSD patients, but in none of controls. One heterozygous sequence variant (g.4762C>A) was found only in one control, which may have no functional significance. A functional analysis revealed that the transcriptional activity of variant NG_008177:g.4566C>T was reduced significantly, whereas the transcriptional activities of the variants (NG_008177:g.4071T>C, NG_008177:g.4148C>A, NG_008177:g.4653G>T, and NG_008177:g.4690G>deletion) were increased significantly compared with the wild-type GATA4 gene promoter. As GATA4 is a dosage-sensitive regulator during development, our data suggest that these sequence variants within the promoter region of the GATA4 gene may contribute to the VSD etiology by altering its gene expression. Additional studies in experimental animals will deepen our understanding of the genetic basis of VSD and shed light on designing novel molecular therapies for adult VSD patients carrying these variants.
- SourceAvailable from: Ranran Song[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: NKX2-5 is a transcriptional factor, which plays an important role in heart formation and development. Two genetic variants in the coding region of NKX2-5, 63A>G (rs2277923) and 606G>C (rs3729753), have been investigated in the risk of congenital heart disease (CHD), although with inconsistent results. Thus, a meta-analysis was performed to clarify the associations between the two variants and CHD risk in the Chinese population. Relevant studies were identified by searching PubMed, ISI Web of Science and CNKI databases and by reviewing the reference lists of retrieved articles. Then, the data from eligible studies were combined in an allelic model. A total of 7 and 4 studies were ultimately included for 63A>G and 606G>C, respectively. The results of overall meta-analyses showed that significant association was detected for 63A>G (OR = 1.26, 95% CI = 1.02-1.56, P heterogeneity = 0.009, I (2) = 65.1%), but not for 606G>C (OR = 1.22, 95% CI = 0.75-1.96, P heterogeneity = 0.412, I (2) = 0.0%). Regarding 63A>G variant, positive results were also obtained in the subgroups of atrial septal defect and large-sample-size study. Besides, the sensitivity analysis indicated that significant association was still detected after deletion of the individual studies with positive result and striking heterogeneity. Our results revealed that the 63A>G variant in NKX2-5, but not the 606G>C, may contribute to CHD risk for Chinese.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(8):e70979. · 3.73 Impact Factor