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Prostate apoptosis response 4 (Par-4), a novel substrate of caspase-3 during apoptosis activation.

Molecular and Cellular Biology (Impact Factor: 5.04). 02/2012;
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    ABSTRACT: Prostate apoptosis response protein 4 (Par-4) also known as PRKC apoptosis WT1 regulator is a tumor suppressor that selectively induces apoptosis in cancer cells. However, its post-translational regulation by ubiquitin-mediated proteolysis and the cellular machinery that is responsible for its proteasomal degradation are unknown. Using immunopurification and an unbiased mass spectrometry-based approach, we show that Par-4 interacts with the SPRY-domain containing E3 ubiquitin ligase Fbxo45 through a short consensus sequence motif. Fbxo45 interacts with Par-4 in the cytoplasm and mediates its ubiquitylation and proteasomal degradation. Fbxo45 silencing results in stabilization of Par-4 with increased apoptosis. Importantly, a Par-4 mutant that is unable to bind Fbxo45 is stabilized and further enhances staurosporine-induced apoptosis. Co-expression of Fbxo45 with Par-4 protects cancer cells against Par-4-induced apoptosis. Our studies reveal that Fbxo45 is the substrate-receptor subunit of a functional E3 ligase for Par-4 that has a critical role in cancer cell survival.Cell Death and Differentiation advance online publication, 4 July 2014; doi:10.1038/cdd.2014.92.
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    ABSTRACT: The tumor suppressor protein prostate apoptosis response-4 (PAR-4) is silenced in a subset of human cancers and its down-regulation serves as a mechanism for cancer cell survival following chemotherapy. PAR-4 re-expression selectively causes apoptosis in cancer cells but how its pro-apoptotic functions are controlled and executed precisely is currently unknown. We demonstrate here that UV-induced apoptosis results in a rapid caspase-dependent PAR-4 cleavage at EEPD131¯G, a sequence that was preferentially recognized by caspase-8. To investigate the effect on cell growth for this cleavage event we established stable cell lines that express wild-type-PAR-4 or the caspase cleavage resistant mutant PAR-4 D131G under the control of a doxycycline-inducible promoter. Induction of the wild-type protein but not the mutant interfered with cell proliferation, predominantly through induction of apoptosis. We further demonstrate that TNFα-induced apoptosis leads to caspase-8-dependent PAR-4-cleavage followed by nuclear accumulation of the C-terminal PAR-4 (132-340) fragment, which then induces apoptosis. Taken together, our results indicate that the mechanism by which PAR-4 orchestrates the apoptotic process requires cleavage by caspase-8.
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