[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: L-ascorbic acid has been widely used in cosmetic and dermatological products because of its ability to scavenge free radicals and destroy oxidizing agents. However, it is chemically unstable and can easily be oxidized. The current cosmetic facial masks available in the market are pre-moistened, which means that the aqueous fluid content of the mask may oxidize some of the unstable active ingredients such as ascorbic acid. This work presents an anti-wrinkle nanofiber face mask containing ascorbic acid, retinoic acid, gold nanoparticles, and collagen. This novel face mask will only be wetted when applied to the skin, thus enhancing product stability. Once moistened, the content of the mask will gradually dissolve and release the active ingredients and ensure maximum skin penetration. The high surface area-to-volume ratio of the nanofiber mask will ensure maximum contact with the skin surface and help to enhance the skin permeation to restore its healthy appearance. Electrospun fiber mats may provide an attractive alternative to the commercial facial cotton masks.
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Severe nodular acne, defined as grade 4 or 5 acne on the Investigator's Static Global Assessment scale, is a skin condition characterized by intense erythema, inflammation, nodules, cysts, and scarring. Both the well known risk of physical scarring and the more recent recognition that acne can be a chronic, psychologically distressing disease with significant adverse effects on a patient's quality of life, have prompted earlier, more aggressive treatment with more effective medications, in the hope of preventing progression to more severe, nodular forms of the disease. Oral antibacterials, primarily tetracyclines, have long been the first-line therapy for severe nodular acne, which frequently remained refractory to therapy. However, concerns of antibacterial adverse effects, patient adherence, and antimicrobial resistance prompted the search for alternate therapies and combinations thereof in order to target the multifactorial pathogenesis of the disease. Isotretinoin, an oral retinoid introduced in 1982, has since become the gold standard therapy in severe acne and has revolutionized its treatment. Several adjunctive agents exist. Oral antibacterials are indicated as an alternative for patients with severe acne who cannot tolerate oral retinoids, or for whom a contraindication exists. In order to prevent bacterial resistance, antibacterials should always be used in combination with benzoyl peroxide, a nonantibiotic antimicrobial agent with anti-inflammatory activity. Topical retinoids are often added to this regimen. In women, hormonal agents, which include oral contraceptives, spironolactone, and oral corticosteroids, and, in Europe, cyproterone acetate, may be used as monotherapy or concomitantly with isotretinoin. For rapid treatment of inflammatory nodules, intralesional corticosteroids are effective. These treatment modalities have been studied, refined, and combined in novel ways in order to target the multifactorial pathogenesis of the disease, and in this article we review each of their roles.
American Journal of Clinical Dermatology 11/2010; 12(1):7-14. · 1.84 Impact Factor
[show abstract][hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Acne scarring is a commonly encountered yet extremely challenging problem to treat for the dermatologist. As acne scarring can lead to significant psychological distress and low self-esteem, it is of utmost importance to have effective and satisfying treatments in the physician's armamentarium. However, many treatments are unsatisfying, leading to patient disappointment and frustration. Although early treatment of acne lesions and inflammation with isotretinoin is beneficial in preventing acne scarring, many patients still present with troubling noticeable scars. Despite the advances in pharmacology and technology, scar treatment still remains suboptimal and is tainted with several adverse effects. However, some treatments can provide benefits. This review article exhaustively discusses and analyzes the various minimally invasive approaches to the treatment of acne scarring with an emphasis on pharmacologic agents, such as isotretinoin for atrophic acne scars and corticosteroids and chemotherapeutic drugs for hypertrophic scars. Intralesional injections of corticosteroids are efficacious in reducing keloid scar formation in addition to preventing recurrence following surgical excision. In-office and minimally invasive procedural management, including chemical peels, dermabrasion, tissue augmentation, and punch excision is also discussed. Superficial chemical peels are efficacious in treating atrophic scars with relatively few adverse effects and complications. Although dermabrasion is used less often with the advent of laser resurfacing, this technique remains as a viable option for those with atrophic scars. Post-inflammatory hyperpigmentation can be managed successfully with topical agents such as azelaic acid and hydroquinone. The efficacy of various treatment modalities is highlighted with a focus on choosing the correct modalities for specific scar types.
American Journal of Clinical Dermatology 10/2012; 13(5):331-40. · 1.84 Impact Factor
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