The physiology and timing of male puberty.
ABSTRACT To describe available markers of male puberty, discuss associations between adiposity and pubertal timing and to review recent evidence of a possible secular trend in male pubertal timing.
An expert panel reviewing existing American pubertal data from boys in 2005 could not confirm a secular trend in male pubertal timing. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey III findings have been confirmed by the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development study reporting a mean age of 10.4 years for Caucasian boys entering Tanner stage G2. Furthermore, the Copenhagen Puberty Study reported a 3 months decline in pubertal onset during a 15-year period (from 11.92 years in 1991 to 11.66 years in 2008).A negative association between obesity and early puberty was found in the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development study, in contrast to the positive association found in a Danish study. Other studies have not been able to document an association between prepubertal BMI and age at pubertal onset.
Evaluation of Tanner stage and especially assessment of testicular volume should both be used in epidemiological studies. We speculate that the association between fat mass and pubertal timing may be nonlinear and recent studies may indicate a small decline in age at pubertal onset in boys.
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ABSTRACT: New charts for height, weight, height velocity, and weight velocity are presented for clinical (as opposed to population survey) use. They are based on longitudinal-type growth curves, using the same data as in the British 1965 growth standards. In the velocity standards centiles are given for children who are early- and late-maturing as well as for those who mature at the average age (thus extending the use of the previous charts). Limits of normality for the age of occurrence of the adolescent growth spurt are given and also for the successive stages of penis, testes, and pubic hair development in boys, and for stages of breast and pubic hair development in girls.Archives of Disease in Childhood 04/1976; 51(3):170-9. · 3.05 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The onset of production of spermatozoa (spermarche) is the basis for achievement of reproductive capacity in men. We collected 24-h urine samples every 3 months in a 7-yr longitudinal study of 40 normal boys initially aged 8.6-11.7 yr. After centrifugation, the urine was analyzed for the presence of spermatozoa by microscopic examination, and spermarche was estimated on the basis of age at first observed spermaturia. The results were corrected for the intermittent occurrence of spermatozoa in the urine after first observed spermaturia and the fact that the urine samples were collected quarterly. In addition, physical examination, including determination of testicular size by orchidometer measurement, pubic hair distribution (Tanner stage), and height, was carried out every 6 months. Spermarche occurred at a median age of 13.4 yr (range, 11.7-15.3 yr), at a time when testicular size was 4.7-19.6 ml (median, 11.5 ml), and pubic hair distribution was 1-5 (median, 2.5). In most boys, spermarche preceded the age of peak height velocity (median, 13.8 yr; range, 12.2-15.2 yr); at the time of spermarche, median peak height growth velocity was 9.9 cm/yr (range, 7.5-13.4 cm/yr), and median height was 160.4 cm (range, 151.7-175.9 cm). We conclude that spermarche is an early pubertal event and that a wide variation in testicular size and secondary sex characteristics is found at that time. In particular, spermarche may occur when little or no pubic hair has developed, and the testes have grown only slightly.Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism 04/1986; 62(3):532-5. · 6.43 Impact Factor
- Helvetica paediatrica acta 05/1974; 29(1):61-72.