Palpable scrotal mass, acute scrotal pain, and enlarged scrotum are common scenarios in clinical practice. The imaging modality of choice to evaluate scrotal pathology is ultrasound (US). US is key in determining if a palpable abnormality is extratesticular or intratesticular and cystic or solid. US findings help narrow the differential to benign or malignant causes. Extratesticular lesions are more common and usually benign. Rarely, extratesticular solid lesions are malignant but US features are nonspecific. Accurately diagnosing rare benign intratesticular lesions is vital to avoid unnecessary orchiectomy. This article reviews extratesticular and intratesticular lesions presenting as a palpable mass and other conditions commonly seen.
"In clinical practice, the TV can be evaluated by physical examination using the Prader's orchidometer, but with a greater precision by testicular ultrasound which overcomes confounding factors such as scrotal effusions, varicose veins, intrascrotal masses, testicular pain, and distinction from adjacent anatomical structures . It is well known that a significant TV decrease is associated with a worst testicular performance of both endocrine (androgen decline) and reproductive activities (abnormal sperm parameters)    . "
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Background. Reduced testicular volume (TV) (<12 cm(3)) is associated with lower testicular function. Several studies explored the conventional sperm parameters (concentration, motility, and morphology) and the endocrine function (gonadotropins and testosterone serum concentrations) in the patients with reduction of TV. No other parameters have been examined. Aim. This study aims at evaluating some biofunctional sperm parameters by flow cytometry in the semen of men with reduced TV compared with that of subjects with normal TV. Methods. 78 patients without primary scrotal disease were submitted to ultrasound evaluation of the testis. They were divided into two groups according to testicular volume: A Group, including 40 patients with normal testicular volume (TV > 15 cm(3)) and B Group, including 38 patients with reduced testicular volume (TV ≤ 12 cm(3)). All patients underwent serum hormone concentration, conventional and biofunctional (flow cytometry) sperm parameters evaluation. Results. With regard to biofunctional sperm parameters, all values (mitochondrial membrane potential, phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin compactness, and DNA fragmentation) were strongly negatively correlated with testicular volume (P < 0.0001). Conclusions. This study for the first time in the literature states that the biofunctional sperm parameters worsen and with near linear correlation, with decreasing testicular volume.
International Journal of Endocrinology 09/2013; 2013(3):145792. DOI:10.1155/2013/145792 · 1.95 Impact Factor
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: We report two adult patients with varied urologic symptoms who were found to have inflammatory pseudotumor on histopathology. The first patient had a large, solid, enhancing retroperitoneal mass le- sion and presented with increased frequency of urination and recurrent urinary tract infections. The second patient had an obstructing left distal ureteric stricture and presented with painless hematuria. Though preoperative radiological diagnosis of this entity is not feasible, the present article illustrates the imaging findings in this unusual disease entity with review of the relevant literature.
Radiology Case Reports 08/2012; 7(3):742. DOI:10.2484/rcr.v7i3.742
[Show abstract][Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Scrotal ultrasound (US) is the technique of choice for imaging the scrotal contents. US is widely used in the characterization of scrotal pathologies as a supplement to the clinical examination. Modern US equipment, precise technical performance, and knowledge of sonographic anatomy and pathology, as in any US examination, are the basis for a correct diagnosis. New techniques, including elastography and contrast-enhanced US, may have an added value to the diagnosis.
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