Explaining Poorer Stroke Outcomes in Women: Women Surviving 3 Months Have More Severe Strokes Than Men Despite a Lower 3-Month Case Fatality
ABSTRACT Women who survive stroke are more disabled and more often institutionalized than men.
We explore this phenomenon by studying case fatality and stroke severity in stroke survivors separately for men and women.
A Danish stroke registry (2000-2007) contains information about 26,818 patients with first-ever ischemic stroke, including stroke severity (Scandinavian Stroke Scale, 0 worst to 58 best), computed tomography scan, cardiovascular risk factors, and death 3 months after stroke. We modeled stroke severity by generalized additive linear model and 3-month case fatality with logistic model adjusting for age and cardiovascular risk factors.
Male to female ratio was 51.5% to 48.5%. Mean age was 68.8 (SD 12.6) years in men; 73.7 (13.8) years in women. Stroke was more severe in women (mean [SD] Scandinavian Stroke Scale, 42.2 [16.0]) than in men (mean [SD] Scandinavian Stroke Scale, 45.6 [14.2]) also after adjustment for age and cardiovascular risk factors; significant in patients older than 75 years. In survivors at 3 months, stroke was more severe in women than men, given same age and cardiovascular risk factor profile; significant in patients older than 75 years. More women (11.9%) had died within 3 months than men (8.6%). However, adjusting for age, stroke severity, and risk factor profile, 3-month case fatality was lower in women than men; significant in patients older than 78 years.
Although 3-month case fatality was lower in women than men, strokes were more severe among survivors at 3 months in women than in men. In addition, strokes were more severe in women. Our data help elucidate why women survive stroke better but have poorer functional outcomes that require more care than men.
Full-textDOI: · Available from: Zorana Jovanovic Andersen, Feb 04, 2015
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ABSTRACT: Large longitudinal studies on stroke outcome are scarce. The aim of this study was to analyze predictors and changes in functional outcome during the first year poststroke. Data on patients who were independent in activities of daily living (ADL) and hospitalized for acute stroke in 2008 to 2010 were obtained from the Swedish Stroke Register. Case fatality was assessed by linkage to the Swedish Population Register. ADL was defined by independence or dependence in dressing, toileting, and indoor mobility and assessed at 3 and 12 months. Predictors of ADL dependency were assessed through multivariate analysis. In total, 64 746 patients were included. Case fatality at 3 months was 13.1% (men 11.6% versus women 14.8%; P<0.0001) and at 12 months 18.2% (men 16.4% versus women 20.3%; P<0,0001). In the 35 064 followed-up survivors, ADL dependency rates at 3 and 12 months were 16.2% (men 15.9% versus women 19.2%; P<0.0001) and 28.3% (men 22.7% versus women 34.9%, P<0.0001), respectively. Factors predicting deterioration to ADL dependency between 3 and 12 months were female sex (relative risk [RR]=1.56; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.50-1.70), diabetes mellitus (RR=1.50; 95% CI, 1.05-1.60), comatose at admittance (RR=2.34; 95% CI, 1.79-3.05), previous stroke (RR=1.52; 95% CI, 1.43-1.61), hemorrhagic or unspecified stroke (RR=1.14; 95% CI, 1.05-1.25), and atrial fibrillation (RR= 1.11; 95% CI, 1.04-1.17). Transition from ADL independence to dependence was observed in a high proportion of patients between 3 and 12 months, challenging the common belief that functioning after stroke is stable beyond 3 months. Deterioration occurred more commonly in women, among whom 1/6 converted to dependency. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.Stroke 12/2014; 46(2). DOI:10.1161/STROKEAHA.114.006538 · 6.02 Impact Factor
Article: Stroke in centenarians.[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
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ABSTRACT: Stroke outcome has been reported as worse in women, especially in terms of disability. As for mortality, the data are conflicting, with some reports suggesting a female advantage. Our objective was to explore such issues in an Italian cohort of patients managed by a standardized clinical pathway (CPW) and, as such, homogeneous in terms of clinical management. Data from a cohort of 1993 patients (987 women and 1006 men) with first-ever ischemic stroke, consecutively referred to an in-hospital Clinical Pathway Program from January 1, 2001 to December 31, 2009, were retrospectively analyzed. The relationship between female gender and one-month outcome was assessed with adjustment for age, stroke severity and premorbid disability. The outcome was worse in women in terms of disability (age-adjusted odds ratio 2.03, 95% CI 1.69-2.46), while no difference was found for mortality. In multivariate models, female gender turned out to be associated with a lower case-fatality rate (adjusted hazard ratio 0.65, 95% CI 0.48-0.89, P=0.007), whereas the odds ratio for disability decreased but remained significant (OR 1.30; 95% CI 1.01-1.69). We found a significant interaction between gender and age in the case-fatality rate, and a female survival advantage was apparent only below 50years. Our study confirms the excess risk of disability after stroke in women, although it is mostly explained by the occurrence of the most severe clinical syndromes. As for mortality, female gender seems to play a protective role, at least in the short-term and in younger patients.European Journal of Internal Medicine 08/2013; DOI:10.1016/j.ejim.2013.07.015 · 2.30 Impact Factor