The Implications of Hospital Acquired Adverse Events on Mortality, Length of Stay and Costs for Patients Undergoing Radical Cystectomy for Bladder Cancer
ABSTRACT The incidence of hospital acquired adverse events in radical cystectomy and their implications for hospital outcomes and costs remain poorly described. We describe the incidence of hospital acquired adverse events in radical cystectomy, and characterize its relationship with in-hospital mortality, length of stay and hospitalization costs.
We identified 10,856 patients who underwent radical cystectomy for bladder cancer at 1,175 hospitals in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample from 2001 to 2008. We used hospital claims to identify adverse events for accidental puncture, decubitus ulcer, deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Clostridium difficile, surgical site infection and sepsis. Logistic regression and generalized estimating equation models were used to test the associations of hospital acquired adverse events with mortality, predicted prolonged length of stay and total hospitalization costs.
Hospital acquired adverse events occurred in 11.3% of all patients undergoing radical cystectomy (1,228). Adverse events were associated with a higher odds of in-hospital death (OR 8.07, p<0.001), adjusted prolonged length of stay (41.3%) and total costs ($54,242 vs $26,306; p<0.001) compared to no adverse events on multivariate analysis. The incremental total costs attributable to hospital acquired adverse events were $43.8 million. Postoperative sepsis was associated with the highest risk of mortality (OR 17.56, p<0.001), predicted prolonged length of stay (62.22%) and adjusted total cost ($79,613).
With hospital acquired adverse events occurring in approximately 11% of radical cystectomy cases, they pose a significant risk of in-hospital mortality and higher hospitalization costs. Therefore, increased attention is needed to reduce adverse events by improving patient safety, while understanding the economic implications for tertiary referral centers with possible policy changes such as denial of payment for hospital acquired adverse events.
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ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE To compare perioperative patient safety outcomes of minimally invasive cystectomy (MIC) with open cystectomy (OC) in a national cohort. Comparative outcomes data based on validated metrics are sparse for MIC, an emerging treatment for bladder cancer. METHODS We identified patients undergoing MIC and OC for bladder cancer from 2005 to 2010 using the US Nationwide Inpatient Sample. We compared perioperative outcomes using Patient Safety Indicators (PSIs), validated metrics developed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality, and used multivariate regression analyses to generate adjusted odds ratios. RESULTS Between 2005 and 2010, 42,919 patients underwent cystectomy. During this period, the prevalence of MIC increased from 0.8% to 10.3% of all cystectomies. Compared with OC, MIC patients were more likely to be male (P = .019) and treated at large teaching hospitals (P < .001). There were no significant differences in age, race, Charlson index, or region between groups. The median lengths of stay were 8 and 7 days for OC and MIC, respectively (P < .001). In multivariate regression analyses, MIC was associated with a 30% decreased likelihood of any PSI (odds ratio, 0.71; P = .038). Although the occurrence of any PSI was associated with increased mortality (P < .001), there were no significant differences in mortality between OC and MIC. CONCLUSION The prevalence of MIC has substantially increased in recent years. Patients undergoing MIC had superior perioperative patient safety outcomes as measured by PSIs. Further study is needed to explain these patterns and to promote the continued safe diffusion of this technology. (C) 2014 Elsevier Inc.Urology 06/2014; 84(2). DOI:10.1016/j.urology.2014.02.048 · 2.13 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Introduction and objectives: Venothrombolic events (VTEs) following radical cystectomy (RC) are a significant contributor to postoperative morbidity. A better understanding of the incidence and timing of VTE would clarify chemoprophylaxis strategies among RC patients. We sought to characterize the burden of VTE after RC by defining their timing and effect utilizing the MarketScan commercial databases. Methods: From MarketScan databases, we identified patients younger than 65 years undergoing RC for a primary diagnosis of bladder cancer between 2008 and 2011 with International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition diagnosis and procedure codes. MarketScan includes inpatient and outpatient health insurance claims of 34 million enrollees annually with data from 150 employers and 13 commercial health plans. We identified the occurrence of VTE, including both pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis, in patients undergoing RC by searching MarketScan for relevant International Classification of Diseases, 9th Edition codes for these diagnoses. Our primary outcome of interest was the timing of VTEs. Multivariate logistical regression models were used to identify patient factors that were associated with VTEs. Results: A total of 1,581 patients were included in our analysis. Overall, 10% of patients experienced VTEs within 90 days of RC. The incidence of postoperative VTEs during the index admission, after discharge and within 30 days of surgery, and between 31 and 90 days postoperatively was 2.9%, 3.8%, and 3.3%, respectively. Prolonged index hospitalization, discharge to a skilled nursing facility, and orthotopic neobladder urinary diversion were significantly associated with VTE within 30 days of RC. Conclusion: Most VTEs occur after discharge from the index RC hospitalization. Consideration should be given to extended chemoprophylaxis in this high-risk group of patients.Urologic Oncology 05/2014; 32(6). DOI:10.1016/j.urolonc.2014.02.016 · 3.36 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The purpose of this paper is to provide a current view of the economic burden of bladder cancer, with a focus on the cost effectiveness of available interventions. This review updates a previous systematic review and includes 72 new papers published between 2000 and 2013. Bladder cancer continues to be one of the most common and expensive malignancies. The annual cost of bladder cancer in the USA during 2010 was $US4 billion and is expected to rise to $US5 billion by 2020. Ten years ago, urinary markers held the potential to lower treatment costs of bladder cancer. However, subsequent real-world experiments have demonstrated that further work is necessary to identify situations in which these technologies can be applied in a cost-effective manner. Adjunct cytology remains a part of diagnostic standard of care, but recent research suggests that it is not cost effective due to its low diagnostic yield. Analysis of intravesical chemotherapy after transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TURBT), neo-adjuvant therapy for cystectomy, and robot-assisted laparoscopic cystectomy suggests that these technologies are cost effective and should be implemented more widely for appropriate patients. The existing literature on the cost effectiveness of bladder cancer treatments has improved substantially since 2000. The body of work now includes many new models, registry analyses, and real-world studies. However, there is still a need for new implementation guidelines, new risk modeling tools, and a better understanding of the empirical burden of bladder cancer.PharmacoEconomics 07/2014; 32(11). DOI:10.1007/s40273-014-0194-2 · 3.34 Impact Factor