Risk Stratification of Patients With IgA Nephropathy

Department of Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases (Impact Factor: 5.76). 04/2012; 59(6):865-73. DOI: 10.1053/j.ajkd.2012.02.326
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT In this review, we summarize recent advances in the risk stratification of patients with immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy. Several clinical variables have consistent and independent associations with worse kidney prognosis, including blood pressure, proteinuria, and baseline kidney function. Although one-time cross-sectional assessments of blood pressure and proteinuria are important, a more thorough understanding of risk can be achieved when these variables are considered over a follow-up period. IgA nephropathy is unique compared with other glomerular diseases in that a much lower threshold of proteinuria (protein excretion, 1 g/d) is associated with glomerular filtration rate (GFR) loss. Controlling proteinuria and blood pressure over time is important to reduce the risk of future loss of kidney function. The recently described Oxford classification has helped standardize the pathologic characterization of IgA nephropathy using a scoring system that is readily reproducible and associated with increased risk of GFR loss independent of clinical variables. We suggest an approach to risk stratification in IgA nephropathy when considering potential treatment with immunosuppression. Despite our current understanding of risk stratification in IgA nephropathy, the ability to accurately predict individual patient-level risk currently is limited, and further research into additional biomarkers or risk prediction tools is needed to improve the care of patients with IgA nephropathy.

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    Journal of the American Society of Nephrology 09/2012; 23(10):1607-10. DOI:10.1681/ASN.2012080862 · 9.47 Impact Factor
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    Clinical biochemistry 02/2013; 46(7). DOI:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2013.01.017 · 2.28 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: IgA nephropathy (IgAN) accounts for a far higher proportion of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) in Asia compared with North America. It is not known whether this is entirely because of differences in disease prevalence or a higher risk of disease progression. The lack of a racially diverse population cohort followed longitudinally has previously precluded the ability to address this question. To determine whether Asians in North America with IgAN are at higher risk for ESRD, we analyzed a cohort of 202 patients of self-reported Pacific Asian origin and 467 of other origin from the Toronto GN Registry followed up for a median of 46.4 months. The primary outcome of ESRD (dialysis, transplantation, or eGFR below 15) was analyzed using Cox regression analysis. Baseline eGFR was 59.6 ml/min/1.73 m(2), and median proteinuria was 1.8 g/day. ESRD occurred in 213 patients. By univariable analysis, the risk of ESRD was similar between the two groups (hazard ratio 0.98, 95% CI 0.73, 1.31); however, after adjusting for age, gender, eGFR, medication use, blood pressure, and proteinuria, the risk of ESRD was significantly higher in Pacific Asian individuals (hazard ratio 1.56, 95% CI 1.10, 2.22). This was supported by a significant 1.62 ml/min/1.73 m(2)/year faster rate of eGFR decline (95% CI -3.19, -0.5) and an increased risk of a reduction in eGFR by half (hazard ratio 1.81, 95% CI 1.25, 2.62). Thus, in a large multiracial cohort of patients with IgAN, individuals of Pacific Asian origin have a higher risk of progression to ESRD.Kidney International advance online publication, 5 June 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.210.
    Kidney International 06/2013; 84(5). DOI:10.1038/ki.2013.210 · 8.52 Impact Factor
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