Chlorogenic acid from the Japanese herbal medicine Kinginka suppresses the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase in rat hepatocytes
Flos Lonicerae japonicae (FLJ; Kinginka) is the dried flowers and buds of the Japanese honeysuckle Lonicera japonica Thunberg. FLJ has been used as a Japanese Kampo medicine to treat infectious and inflammatory diseases. However, it is not clear which constituent of FLJ is responsible for its pharmacological effects.
FLJ was extracted with methanol and fractionated by hydrophobicity. We measured the effects of each fraction on the induction of the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO), which was induced by interleukin 1β in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. To estimate cytotoxicity, the activity of lactate dehydrogenase released from the hepatocytes was measured. The expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) was analyzed by Western blot analysis and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
The methanol extract was fractionated into hydrophobic (11.1%), butanol-soluble (16.4%), and water-soluble fractions (72.5%). These three fractions dose-dependently suppressed the induction of NO and reduced the level of iNOS protein in interleukin 1β-stimulated hepatocytes. Chlorogenic acid, a major constituent of the water-soluble fraction, significantly reduced the levels of NO production, iNOS protein, and iNOS mRNA. Chlorogenic acid also decreased the levels of mRNAs encoding cytokines and chemokines that are involved in inflammatory disease. Caffeic acid, which is formed by the hydrolysis of chlorogenic acid, markedly reduced the induction of NO, although it did not exist at a detectable level in the water-soluble fraction. In contrast, other constituents of the water-soluble fraction, such as inositol fructose, glucose, and sucrose, did not affect the induction of NO.
The anti-inflammatory effects of the FLJ extract and its constituents were analyzed by measuring the induction of NO and iNOS in hepatocytes. We demonstrated that chlorogenic acid, one of the main constituents of FLJ, is involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of the FLJ extract, suggesting its therapeutic potential.
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ABSTRACT: A new flavanone, shisoflavanone A (1), and several flavonoids were purified from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of green perilla leaves (Perilla frutescens Britton var. crispa form viridis), and their structures were identified. Shisoflavanone A was elucidated as 8-hydroxy-6,7-dimethoxyflavanone based on its spectral data. Other constituents of the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction, i.e. 5,8-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (2), negletein (5,6-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavone) (3), luteolin (4), apigenin (5), esculetin (6), and protocatechuic acid (7), were identified. This is the first time that constituents 2, 3, and 6 have been found in green perilla. Shisoflavanone A and the other constituents (except 7) significantly inhibited nitric oxide production in interleukin 1β-stimulated rat hepatocytes, which have been used to monitor the anti-inflammatory effects of herbal constituents. The present findings suggest that these constituents, including shisoflavanone A, may be involved in the anti-inflammatory effects of green perilla leaves.Bioscience Biotechnology and Biochemistry 09/2014; 79(1):1-9. DOI:10.1080/09168451.2014.962474 · 1.21 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Antipyretic analgesic drugs (including non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) inhibit cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), resulting in decreases of the proinflammatory mediators prostaglandin E2 and nitric oxide (NO), respectively. Both mediators are regulated by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), a key transcription factor in inflammation. Few reports have compared the efficacy and potency of anti-inflammatory drugs as NO inhibitors. In our study, we examined the effects of four popular antipyretic analgesic drugs on NO production induced in hepatocytes and macrophages. Mouse RAW264.7 macrophages treated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide showed the highest efficacy with regard to NO production; aspirin, loxoprofen, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen dose-dependently suppressed NO induction. Ibuprofen showed the highest potency in suppressing the induced production of NO. In rat hepatocytes, all the drugs inhibited interleukin 1β-induced NO production and ibuprofen and loxoprofen inhibited NO induction effectively. Unexpectedly, the potency of NO suppression of each drug in hepatocytes did not always correlate with that observed in RAW264.7 cells. Microarray analyses of mRNA expression in hepatocytes revealed that the effects of the four antipyretic analgesic drugs modulated the NF-κB signaling pathway in a similar manner to the regulation of the expression of genes associated with inflammation, including the iNOS gene. However, the affected signal-transducing molecules in the NF-κB pathway were different for each drug. Therefore, antipyretic analgesic drugs may decrease NO production by modulating the NF-κB pathway in different ways, which could confer different efficacies and potencies with regard to their anti-inflammatory effects. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.Nitric Oxide 12/2014; 44. DOI:10.1016/j.niox.2014.12.001 · 3.18 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Gomishi is the dried fruit of Schisandra chinensis Baillon (Fructus Schisandrae chinensis, FSC) and has been used in Japanese Kampo medicine to treat inflammatory and liver diseases. However, it is unclear which constituent of FSC is primarily responsible for its pharmacological effects. FSC was extracted with methanol, fractionated by hydrophobicity, and further purified. We measured the effects of each fraction or constituent thereof on the induction of the inflammatory mediator nitric oxide (NO), which was induced by interleukin 1β in primary cultured rat hepatocytes. The hydrophobic fraction markedly suppressed NO induction and reduced the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in interleukin 1β-treated hepatocytes. Gomisin N and γ-schizandrin, two major constituents of the hydrophobic fraction, significantly reduced NO production and the levels of the iNOS protein, mRNA, and antisense transcript. Gomisin N and γ-schizandrin also decreased the transcription of interleukin 1β and inflammatory chemokines. The overexpression of the p65 subunit of nuclear factor κB or CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein β increased the promoter activity of the iNOS gene in the firefly luciferase assay, whereas gomisin N decreased the promoter activity. The anti-inflammatory activity of FSC and its constituents were analysed, and we demonstrated that gomisin N and γ-schizandrin are involved in the hepatoprotective effect of the FSC extract, which has therapeutic potential for liver disease.Nitric Oxide 10/2012; 28. DOI:10.1016/j.niox.2012.10.003 · 3.18 Impact Factor