Youlden DR, Cramb SM, Dunn NA, Muller JM, Pyke CM, Baade PDThe descriptive epidemiology of female breast cancer: an international comparison of screening, incidence, survival and mortality. Cancer Epidemiol 36: 237-248

Viertel Centre for Research in Cancer Control, Cancer Council Queensland, Spring Hill, Qld 4004, Australia.
Cancer epidemiology 03/2012; 36(3):237-48. DOI: 10.1016/j.canep.2012.02.007
Source: PubMed


This paper presents the latest international descriptive epidemiological data for invasive breast cancer amongst women, including incidence, survival and mortality, as well as information on mammographic screening programmes.
Almost 1.4 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer worldwide in 2008 and approximately 459,000 deaths were recorded. Incidence rates were much higher in more developed countries compared to less developed countries (71.7/100,000 and 29.3/100,000 respectively, adjusted to the World 2000 Standard Population) whereas the corresponding mortality rates were 17.1/100,000 and 11.8/100,000. Five-year relative survival estimates range from 12% in parts of Africa to almost 90% in the United States, Australia and Canada, with the differential linked to a combination of early detection, access to treatment services and cultural barriers. Observed improvements in breast cancer survival in more developed parts of the world over recent decades have been attributed to the introduction of population-based screening using mammography and the systemic use of adjuvant therapies.
The future worldwide breast cancer burden will be strongly influenced by large predicted rises in incidence throughout parts of Asia due to an increasingly "westernised" lifestyle. Efforts are underway to reduce the global disparities in survival for women with breast cancer using cost-effective interventions.

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    • "BC is the second most common cancer and the fifth leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. In 2008, approximately 1.4 million women were diagnosed with BC, and approximately 459,000 deaths were reported in worldwide [1]. In 2008, it was the most prevalent cancer and the fourth leading cause of cancer-related deaths in Taiwan [2]. "
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    ABSTRACT: APOE ε2 or ε4 alleles being used as indicators of breast cancer risk are controversial in Taiwanese females. We provide a concept for relative comparisons of post-translational modifications (PTMs) of plasma apolipoprotein E (ApoE) between normal controls and breast cancer patients to investigate the association of ApoE with breast cancer risk. APOE polymorphisms (ApoE isoforms) were not assessed in this study. The relative modification ratio (%) of 15 targeted and 21 modified peptides were evaluated by 1D SDS-PAGE, in-gel digestion, and label-free nano-LC/MS to compare normal controls with breast cancer patients. Plasma levels of the ApoE protein did not significantly differ between normal controls and breast cancer patients. Eleven sites with novel PTMs were identified from 7 pairs of differentially expressed targeted and modified peptides according to the relative modification ratio including methylation at the E3 (↑1.45-fold), E7 (↑1.45-fold), E11 (↑1.19-fold), E77 (↑2.02-fold), E87 (↑2.02-fold), and Q98 (↑1.62-fold) residues; dimethylation at the Q187 (↑1.44-fold) residue; dihydroxylation at the R92 (↑1.25-fold), K95 (↑1.25-fold), and R103 (↑1.25-fold) residues; and glycosylation at the S129 (↑1.14-fold) residue. The clustered methylation and dihydroxylation of plasma ApoE proteins may play a role in breast cancer.
    Journal of proteomics 06/2015; 126. DOI:10.1016/j.jprot.2015.05.038 · 3.89 Impact Factor
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    • "Chemotherapy, radiotherapy and endocrine therapy also play important roles in breast cancer. Although with comprehensive therapy, there are about 0.5 million women patients died of breast cancer each year due to recurrence, metastasis and resistance to therapy [2]. Therefore, more effective therapeutic strategies are required to improve treatment outcomes for breast cancer patients. "
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    ABSTRACT: Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) can selectively induce apoptosis of cancer cells and is verified effective to various cancers. However, a variety of breast cancer cell lines are resistant to TRAIL and the mechanisms of resistance are largely unknown. In our present experiment, we successfully utilized breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231 to establish TRAIL-resistant cell line. We found resistance to TRAIL could induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and enhance invasiveness. We further demonstrated PTEN was down-regulated in TRAIL-resistant cells. Silencing miR-221, PTEN expression was up-regulated, the process of EMT could be reversed, and the ability of migration and invasion were correspondingly weakened. We also demonstrated knockdown of miR-221 could reverse resistance to TRAIL partially by targeting PTEN. Our findings suggest that resistance to TRAIL could induce EMT and enhance invasiveness by suppressing PTEN via miR-221. Re-expression of miR-221 or targeting PTEN might serve as potential therapeutic approaches for the treatment of Trail-resistant breast cancer.
    PLoS ONE 06/2014; 9(6):e99067. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0099067 · 3.23 Impact Factor
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    • "In 1990, it was estimated that 59% of breast cancer cases occurred in more developed countries (defined as North America, Europe, Australia, New Zealand and Japan), although these areas accounted for less than a quarter of the global female population at the time3. The situation changed considerably over the next two decades; by 2008, the total number of new diagnoses were evenly divided between more developed and less developed countries4,5, and by 2012 it was estimated that the majority (53%) of cases of female breast cancer were occurring in less developed countries6. While incidence rates still remain much higher in more developed countries, this shift in the global distribution of cases highlights that breast cancer is continuing to emerge as a major health issue for women in Asia, Africa and South America. "
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    ABSTRACT: Objective To provide an overview of the incidence and mortality of female breast cancer for countries in the Asia-Pacific region. Methods Statistical information about breast cancer was obtained from publicly available cancer registry and mortality databases (such as GLOBOCAN), and supplemented with data requested from individual cancer registries. Rates were directly age-standardised to the Segi World Standard population and trends were analysed using joinpoint models. Results Breast cancer was the most common type of cancer among females in the region, accounting for 18% of all cases in 2012, and was the fourth most common cause of cancer-related deaths (9%). Although incidence rates remain much higher in New Zealand and Australia, rapid rises in recent years were observed in several Asian countries. Large increases in breast cancer mortality rates also occurred in many areas, particularly Malaysia and Thailand, in contrast to stabilising trends in Hong Kong and Singapore, while decreases have been recorded in Australia and New Zealand. Mortality trends tended to be more favourable for women aged under 50 compared to those who were 50 years or older. Conclusion It is anticipated that incidence rates of breast cancer in developing countries throughout the Asia-Pacific region will continue to increase. Early detection and access to optimal treatment are the keys to reducing breast cancer-related mortality, but cultural and economic obstacles persist. Consequently, the challenge is to customise breast cancer control initiatives to the particular needs of each country to ensure the best possible outcomes.
    Cancer Biology and Medicine 06/2014; 11(2):101-15. DOI:10.7497/j.issn.2095-3941.2014.02.005
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