The descriptive epidemiology of female breast cancer: An international comparison of screening, incidence, survival and mortality
ABSTRACT This paper presents the latest international descriptive epidemiological data for invasive breast cancer amongst women, including incidence, survival and mortality, as well as information on mammographic screening programmes.
Almost 1.4 million women were diagnosed with breast cancer worldwide in 2008 and approximately 459,000 deaths were recorded. Incidence rates were much higher in more developed countries compared to less developed countries (71.7/100,000 and 29.3/100,000 respectively, adjusted to the World 2000 Standard Population) whereas the corresponding mortality rates were 17.1/100,000 and 11.8/100,000. Five-year relative survival estimates range from 12% in parts of Africa to almost 90% in the United States, Australia and Canada, with the differential linked to a combination of early detection, access to treatment services and cultural barriers. Observed improvements in breast cancer survival in more developed parts of the world over recent decades have been attributed to the introduction of population-based screening using mammography and the systemic use of adjuvant therapies.
The future worldwide breast cancer burden will be strongly influenced by large predicted rises in incidence throughout parts of Asia due to an increasingly "westernised" lifestyle. Efforts are underway to reduce the global disparities in survival for women with breast cancer using cost-effective interventions.
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ABSTRACT: Suberoyl bis-hydroxamic acid (SBHA) is a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and exerts anti-growth effects in several malignancies including breast cancer. Proteasome inhibitors such as Bortezomib and MG-132 constitute novel anticancer agents. In this study, we investigated the synergistic antitumour activity of SBHA in combination with proteasome inhibitors. MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells were treated with SBHA, Bortezomib, and MG-132 alone or in combination for 72 h. Cell proliferation, colony formation, apoptosis and gene expression changes were examined. SBHA, Bortezomib, and MG-132 alone significantly inhibited the proliferation and colony formation and induced apoptosis in MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Combined treatment showed a good synergistic antitumour effect against breast cancer cells. The p53 protein level was significantly elevated by combined treatment with SBHA and proteasome inhibitors. Moreover, combined treatment increased the expression of Bax, Bcl-xS, and Bak and decreased the expression of Bcl-2. Combination of SBHA with proteasome inhibitors causes synergistic anticancer effects on breast cancer cells. The potential molecular mechanism may involve induction of p53 and modulation of the Bcl-2 family proteins. These findings warrant further investigation of the therapeutic benefits of combination of SBHA with proteasome inhibitors in breast cancer.Cancer Cell International 12/2014; 14(1):107. DOI:10.1186/s12935-014-0107-7 · 1.99 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: MiR-130a has been demonstrated to play important roles in many types of cancers. Nevertheless, its biological function in breast cancer remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that the expression level of miR-130a was down-regulated in breast cancer tissues and cells. Overexpression of miR-130a was able to inhibit cell proliferation, invasion and migration in MCF7 and MDA-MB-435 cells. With the bioinformatics analysis, we further identified that RAB5A was a directly target of miR-130a, and its mRNA and protein level was negatively regulated by miR-130a. Immunohistochemistry verified RAB5A was upregulated in breast cancer tissues. Therefore, the data reported here demonstrate that miR-130a is an important tumor suppressor in breast cancer, and imply that miR-130a/RAB5A axis have potential as therapeutic targets for breast cancer.
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ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of preoperative plasma intermedin levels in breast cancer patients. Plasma intermedin levels of 252 breast cancer women and 100 healthy women were determined using radioimmunoassay kit. Adverse event was defined as first local recurrence, distant metastasis, second primary cancer of another organ, or death from any cause during 5-year follow-up. Disease-free survival was defined as the time between surgery and the date of any adverse event whichever appeared first. Overall survival was defined from surgery to death for any cause. The relationships between plasma intermedin levels and clinical outcomes of breast cancer patients were evaluated using multivariate analysis. The results showed that preoperative plasma intermedin levels were substantially higher in patients than in healthy subjects using t-test. Intermedin was identified as an independent predictor for 5-year mortality, adverse event, disease-free survival, and overall survival using multivariate analysis. Based on receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, preoperative plasma intermedin levels had high predictive value for 5-year mortality and adverse event. In conclusion, preoperative plasma intermedin levels are highly associated with poor patient outcomes and intermedin may be a potential prognostic biomarker for patients with breast cancer.