Article

Effects of silver nanoparticles on rat hepatic cytochrome P450 enzyme activity.

National Nanotechnology Center, National Science and Technology Development Agency, Klong Luang, Pathumthani, Thailand.
Xenobiotica (Impact Factor: 1.98). 03/2012; 42(9):854-62. DOI: 10.3109/00498254.2012.670312
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are increasingly used in various products and consequentially the potential adverse effects associated with exposure to them are of concern. This study investigated the effects of AgNPs on the hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes of the cytochrome P450 (CYP) families 1, 2 and 3, using both in vitro and in vivo biological assays. AgNPs were orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats at various concentrations (0-1000 mg/kg body weight/day) for 2 weeks. No effect was found on the plasma levels of ALT, AST and ALP in all treated rat groups, and no significant change in the activities of CYP1A, CYP2C, CYP2D, CYP2E1 and CYP3A was observed for all tested AgNP doses. The results correlated with the observation that no AgNPs were detected in the liver sections of the tested rats. However, the in vitro system using rat liver microsomes demonstrated a strong inhibition of CYP2C (IC(50) = 28 µg/mL) and CYP2D (IC(50) = 23 µg/mL) activities, but not of CYP1A, CYP2E1 and CYP3A activities (IC(50) > 100 µg/mL) at concentrations up to 100 µg/mL of AgNPs. The inhibitory effect of AgNPs on these CYPs indicates the possibility of the AgNP-drug interaction when co-administered with some medicines and this may cause adverse effects to patients.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
126 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology has stepped into the food industry, from the farm to the table at home, in order to improve the taste and nutritional value, extend the shelf-life and monitor the food quality. In fact, as consumers we have already been in contact, via oral exposure, with a number of food products containing engineered nanomaterials (ENMs) more often than most people think. However, the fate of ENMs after entering the GI tract of the human body is not yet clearly understood. Hence, the related safety issue is raised, and attracts much attention and wide debate from the public, even including protest demonstrations against nanotechnology in food. In this review, we summarize the up-to-date information about the characterization and safety evaluation of common inorganic ENMs (with a focus on silver, titanium dioxide, silica and zinc oxide nanoparticles) in food. Based on the literature, a whole scenario of the safety issue of these ENMs in food and an outlook on the future studies are given.
    Nanomedicine 12/2013; 8(12):2007-25. · 5.26 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Orally administered silver has been described to be absorbed in a range of 0.4 to 18% in mammals with a human value of 18%. Based on findings in animals, silver seems to be distributed to all of the organs investigated, with the highest levels being observed in the intestine and stomach. In the skin, silver induces a blue-grey discoloration termed argyria. Excretion occurs via the bile and urine. The following dose-dependent animal toxicity findings have been reported: death, weight loss, hypoactivity, altered neurotransmitter levels, altered liver enzymes, altered blood values, enlarged hearts and immunological effects. Substantial evidence exists suggesting that the effects induced by particulate silver are mediated via silver ions that are released from the particle surface. With the current data regarding toxicity and average human dietary exposure, a Margin of Safety calculation indicates at least a factor of five before a level of concern to the general population is reached.
    Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology 11/2013; · 2.13 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Nanotechnology is having a tremendous impact on our society. However, societal concerns about human safety under nanoparticle exposure may derail the broad application of this promising technology. Nanoparticles may enter the human body via various routes, including respiratory pathways, the digestive tract, skin contact, intravenous injection, and implantation. After absorption, nanoparticles are carried to distal organs by the bloodstream and the lymphatic system. During this process, they interact with biological molecules and perturb physiological systems. Although some ingested or absorbed nanoparticles are eliminated, others remain in the body for a long time. The human body is composed of multiple systems that work together to maintain physiological homeostasis. The unexpected invasion of these systems by nanoparticles disturbs normal cell signaling, impairs cell and organ functions, and may even cause pathological disorders. This review examines the comprehensive health risks of exposure to nanoparticles by discussing how nanoparticles perturb various physiological systems as revealed by animal studies. The potential toxicity of nanoparticles to each physiological system and the implications of disrupting the balance among systems are emphasized.
    Chemical Society Reviews 03/2014; · 24.89 Impact Factor