Factors Affecting Stone-free Rate and Complications of Percutaneous Nephrolithotomy for Treatment of Staghorn Stone

Urology Department, Urology and Nephrology Center, Mansoura University, Mansoura, Egypt.
Urology (Impact Factor: 2.13). 03/2012; 79(6):1236-41. DOI: 10.1016/j.urology.2012.01.026
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT To determine factors affecting the stone-free rate and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) for treatment of staghorn stones.
The computerized database of patients who underwent PNL for treatment of staghorn stones between January 2003 and January 2011 was reviewed. All perioperative complications were recorded and classified according to modified Clavien classification system. The stone-free rate was evaluated with low-dose noncontrast computed tomography (CT). Univariate and multivariate statistical analyses were performed to determine factors affecting stone-free and complication rates.
The study included 241 patients (125 male and 116 female) with a mean age of 48.7 ±14.3 years. All patients underwent 251 PNL (10 patients had bilateral stones). The stone-free rate of PNL monotherapy was 56% (142 procedures). At 3 months, the stone-free rate increased to 73% (183 kidneys) after shock wave lithotripsy. Independent risk factors for residual stones were complete staghorn stone and presence of secondary calyceal stones (relative risks were 2.2 and 3.1, respectively). The complication rate was 27% (68 PNL). Independent risk factors for development of complications were performance of the procedure by urologists other than experienced endourologist and positive preoperative urine culture (relative risks were 2.2 and 2.1, respectively).
Factors affecting the incidence of residual stones after PNL are complete staghorn stones and the presence of secondary calyceal stones. Complications are significantly high if PNL is not performed by an experienced endourologist or if preoperative urine culture is positive.

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    ABSTRACT: Objectives To evaluate a supracostal approach for percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) of staghorn calculi through a prospective study and review of previously reported cases.Methods From June 2009 to November 2011, 40 patients with staghorn calculi were scheduled for supracostal S-PCNL in a prospective study. Of the 40 renal units, 16 (40%) had a complete staghorn and 24 (60%) had a partial staghorn calculus. Perioperative complications were stratified according to the modified Clavien system. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analyses were used to determine statistically significant variables affecting the stone-free rate and development of complications.ResultsIn all, 57 tracts were established in the 40 renal units; 23 (58%) renal units were approached through one supracostal upper pole calyx, while 13 (33%) and four (10%) required a second middle- or lower-pole puncture, respectively. Overall, 78% of patients were rendered stone-free or had clinically insignificant residual fragments with PCNL monotherapy, and this increased to 88% with auxiliary procedures. In the logistic regression analysis, a complete staghorn stone was the only independent variable for residual stones (P = 0.005). There was an overall complication rate of 38%. Independent variables with an influence on complications were staghorn stone burden (P = 0.007), and operative duration (P = 0.045).Conclusions The supracostal upper calyceal approach provides optimum access for the percutaneous removal of staghorn stones. Appropriate attention to the technique and to monitoring before and after surgery can detect thoracic complications, and these can be managed easily with intercostal chest tube drainage, with no serious morbidity.
    12/2012; 10(4):358–366. DOI:10.1016/j.aju.2012.08.001
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    ABSTRACT: OBJECTIVE: To prospectively study the post-operative results and complications of percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PNL) in supine position to assess difficulty of learning it and how experience affects the results. To establish a relative comparison with the data published in the literature on the prone position. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective observational multicenter study on PNL in Valdivia position or in its Galdakao variant was performed. Demographic variables and specific variables related to the lithiasis were collected. Technical aspects, surgery time, success rate and complications according to the Clavien-Dindo classifications were assessed. RESULTS: A total of 335 PNL in supine position conducted in 13 Spanish centers were registered from September 2008 to June 2011. The man:woman ratio was 1:1.28 and mean age 51.3+14.5 years. 211 (63%) cases were performed by urologists with experience in >50 cases and 124 (37%) by urologists with less experience. Mean operation time was 113.3±46.4min, 106.6±38.2 for the experienced ones vs. 124.9±56.2 in the novice ones (P<.002). No difference was detected in the mean size of the lithiasis. However, in the experienced group, there was a greater proportion of coraliform cases and multiple lithiasis than in the novice group (P<.001). Success rate evaluated as total absence of lithiasic residuals was 69.6%, without differences between groups (68.2 vs. 71.8%). In 102 (30.6%) patient had residual lithiasis and 60 (17,9%) required complementary treatment. Relative global success rate was 82.1% and complications rate 25.4%, without detecting differences between groups. However, the novel group had more major complications (P>.001). CONCLUSION: The PNL in supine position is obtaining rapid and consolidated diffusion in our setting and its effectiveness and safety seems to be equivalent to that described in the literature for PNL in prone position. It is possible to obtain good results with a modest learning curve. The rate of greater complications associated to the procedure decreases with experience.
    Actas urologicas españolas 01/2013; 37(4). DOI:10.1016/j.acuroe.2012.11.003 · 1.15 Impact Factor
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    ABSTRACT: Abstract Purpose: To report the clinical efficacy and intermediate-term functional outcome after laparoscopic anatrophic nephrolithotomy (LAN) as an alternative treatment modality for complete staghorn renal stone. Patients and Methods: The demographic and perioperative parameters as well as the intermediate outcome of 10 adults (9 men) who underwent transperitoneal LAN for complete staghorn renal stone were analyzed. Functional imaging studies consisted of intravenous urography (IVU) and technetium-99 dimercaptosuccinic acid scintigraphy (99Tc-DMSA) renal scan done before the operation and at the last follow-up visit. Results: Mean age of patients was 48.7 years (range 37-64 years). Mean stone size was 67.3 mm (50-90 mm). Mean operative time was 192 minutes (110-240 min), and mean warm ischemia time was 32.8 minutes (15-40 min). A few hours after laparoscopy, one patient underwent splenectomy because of significant hemorrhage from a splenic laceration (grade IIIb complication). During the follow-up period early after the operation, we detected an 8-mm lower caliceal stone and a 25-mm midcaliceal stone in one patient each (stone-free rate: 80%). After a mean follow-up of 11.9 months (6-19 mos), 85.5% of corresponding renal unit function was preserved; however, there was a significant mean decrease in 99Tc-DMSA uptake from 48.4%±8.83 before surgery to 41.4%±13.98 afterward (-7%±6.53; P=0.008). Nevertheless, renal units were completely functional at follow-up IVU with a significant improvement in obstruction in all patients. Conclusion: LAN is an alternative minimally invasive approach for one-session management of patients with complete staghorn renal stone. It offers an acceptable rate of stone clearance and operative complications but does incur a minimal loss of function in the affected kidney.
    Journal of endourology / Endourological Society 02/2013; DOI:10.1089/end.2012.0591 · 2.10 Impact Factor
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