The impact of culture change on elders' behavioral symptoms: a longitudinal study.
ABSTRACT Distressing behavioral symptoms often associated with dementia are not uncommon in the long term care setting. Culture change with its "person-centered approach to care" provides a potential nonpharmacological intervention to reduce these symptoms. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between a culture change initiative and nursing home elders' behavioral symptoms.
Seven long term care communities (nursing units in 3 skilled nursing facilities) participated in a culture change intervention designed to transform the nursing home experience from a traditional hospital-model of care to one that is person-centered. Six comparison communities were matched to the intervention communities and continued to function along the typical nursing home organizational structure. Data were collected at baseline and 2 years later.
Subjects were 101 elders (intervention group n = 50, comparison group n = 51). Each elder's primary day certified nursing assistant completed the Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, examining frequency of behavioral symptoms, including verbal and physical agitation as well as more forceful behaviors (eg, hitting, kicking) at both data collection periods.
After controlling for functional status and race, a significant condition by time interaction was found for physical agitation and forceful behaviors with the person-centered group maintaining levels of behavioral symptoms as compared with a significant increase over time among the comparison group. A trend with the same pattern was found for verbal agitation.
Person-centered care demonstrated potential as a nonpharmacological intervention for distressing behavioral symptoms. The positive impact of culture change appears to extend to elders with cognitive impairment who are less obvious beneficiaries of this model, featuring the central principals of autonomy and person-centered care.
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Purpose of the Study: Although nursing home culture change efforts are becoming more widespread, there have been few efforts to systematically compile the evidence related to the efficacy of culture change. This study uses an analytic framework to evaluate the existing evidence for the impact of culture change on nursing home quality. We focus on the nature and scope of culture change interventions, measurement of culture change and adherence to interventions, measurement of culture change outcomes, and the relationship between culture change and its outcomes. We conducted a comprehensive review of peer-reviewed and gray literature published between 2005 and 2012 to identify intervention evaluations that addressed at least one culture change domain. Of 4,982 identified publications, 625 underwent full review; 27 peer-reviewed and 9 gray literature studies met inclusion criteria. Studies varied widely in scope and outcomes. Most addressed more than one culture change domain; resident direction, home environment, and close relationships were most common. Few studies measured culture change implementation, but most used validated tools to measure outcomes. Although few studies reported negative outcomes, there was little consistent evidence of positive effects. Nursing home culture change remains an evolving field. Although culture change has clear face validity, the current evidence does not give providers sufficient information for selecting interventions based on the expectation of improving outcomes. Rigorous research on implementation and outcomes of culture change is needed to determine the specific impact of culture change on quality and to provide guidance to providers and policy makers.The Gerontologist 02/2014; 54(Suppl_1):S6-S16. · 2.48 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: This study examined nursing home staff members' comfort levels with specific culture change scenarios and observed whether there were differences by occupation. We conducted a cross-sectional survey of 218 staff members in all occupational categories at four Veterans Health Administration Community Living Centers (i.e., nursing homes). Staff indicated their comfort level using a 9-point scale (1 = not at all comfortable to 9 = extremely comfortable). The culture change scenarios were divided into three subscales: Resident Safety (5 items), Resident Experience (5 items), and Staff Experience (2 items). Overall, respondents were slightly uncomfortable with the scenarios (overall mean = 4.57). Staff reported least comfort with the Resident Safety subscale (mean = 3.63) and most comfort with the Resident Experience subscale (mean = 5.65), with significant differences within these two subscales by occupational category. Existent power differentials among staff may influence comfort levels with culture change. Assessing staff comfort with culture change may help guide implementation efforts in a strategic manner.Research in Gerontological Nursing 06/2013; · 0.66 Impact Factor
- [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Background: Person-centered care has been widely promoted in long-term care settings. It is commonly referred to as a core concept that guides the care philosophy change in long-term care settings from a traditional medical model to a more humanistic approach to care. Current person-centered practice in long-term care settings are guided by multiple person-centered care models. However, evidence regarding the effects of person-centered practice guided by multiple models on residents’ outcomes has not been well established or synthesized. Objectives: To outline and compare the principal models and to synthesize current evidence of the effects of multiple person-centered care models on resident outcomes. Method: Systematic searches were conducted using CINAHL, MEDLINE, PsychoINFO, Evidence Based Medicine Reviews, Cochrane Review databases, and ProQuest Dissertations and Theses using the following keywords (UK and US spellings) individually and in multiple combinations: person-centered care, resident-centered care, client-centered care, individualized care, patient-centered care, culture change, Eden Alternative, Wellspring, Green House, Pioneer Network, dementia, nursing home, assisted living, long-term care. The searches were limited to articles written in English and published from January 1990 to April 2013. Then a manual search of the reference lists of selected relevant articles was conducted. Results: Twenty-four studies from three countries were reviewed and compared in terms of person-centered interventions, measurement, and resident outcomes. 15 culture change studies for residents who were cognitively intact or with minor cognitive impairment and 9 studies for residents with dementia were reviewed. Across the studies, culture change models had some beneficial effects on residents’ psychological wellbeing. Person-centered dementia care had significant effects on decreasing behavioral symptoms and psychotropic medication use in dementia residents in long-term care. Conclusion: An agreed upon definition of person-centered care is essential for researchers and clinicians to guide person-centered care development and implementation. Rigorous study design and objective and subjective measurement use are needed for future studies, especially those guided by culture change models. The effectiveness of person-centered care on residents’ bio-psycho-social outcomes like sleep, stress, and physical wellbeing need to be addressed and systematically examined with subjective and objective measures in future studies. Keywords: culture change; dementia; long-term care; outcomes; person-centered careInternational journal of nursing studies 04/2014; In Press. · 1.91 Impact Factor