Role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor β agonist on angiogenesis in hindlimb ischemic diabetic rats
ABSTRACT Studies indicated that PPARβ agonists play a role in modulation of angiogenesis. In this study, we evaluated the effect of specific PPARβ agonist, GW0742, on angiogenesis and serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), and nitrite concentrations in hindlimb ischemia in normal and diabetic rats.
Hindlimb ischemic rats were divided into four groups: control, diabetic, control, and diabetic treated with GW0742 (n=7 each). Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin (55mg/kg, ip). GW0742 was injected 1day after surgery (1mg/kg, sc). After 21days, blood samples were taken, and gastrocnemius muscles were harvested for immunohistochemistry.
GW0742 significantly increased serum nitrite and VEGFR-2 concentrations and VEGF-to-VEGFR-2 ratio in control and diabetic rats. Capillary density was lower in diabetic animals compared to the control, and GW0742 significantly restored the capillary density in the control and diabetic hindlimb ischemic rats.
PPARβ agonists restore skeletal muscle angiogenesis and can be considered for prevention and/or treatment of peripheral vascular complications in diabetic subjects.
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- "Endothelial cells are the main cells involved in the angiogenesis process. Physiological angiogenesis contributes in events such as pregnancy, embryonic development, wound healing and menstruation, however, disturbances in physiologic angiogenesis can participates in various human diseases including cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetic complications, ocular disease and chronic inflammation in the form impairment angiogenesis that leads to diabetic vasculopathy or excessive angiogenesis that can cause to diabetic retinopathy and nephropathy and inhibited angiogenesis in transplant rejection in diabetic recipients. "
ABSTRACT: Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a complex disease and a chronic health-care problem. Nowadays, because of alteration of lifestyle such as lack of exercise, intake of high fat diet subsequently obesity and aging population, the prevalence of diabetes mellitus is increasing quickly in around the world. The international diabetes federation estimated in 2008, that 246 million adults in worldwide suffered from diabetes mellitus and the prevalence of disease is expected to reach to 380 million by 2025. Although, mainly in management of diabetes focused on hyperglycemia, however, it is documented that abnormalities of angiogenesis may contribute in the pathogenesis of diabetes complications. Angiogenesis is the generation of new blood vessels from pre-existing ones. Normal angiogenesis depends on the intricate balance between angiogenic factors (such as VEGF, FGF(2), TGF-β, angiopoietins) and angiostatic factors (angiostatin, endostatin, thrombospondins). Vascular abnormalities in different tissues including retina and kidney can play a role in pathogenesis of micro-vascular complications of diabetes; also vascular impairment contributes in macrovascular complications e.g., diabetic neuropathy and impaired formation of coronary collaterals. Therefore, identifying of different mechanisms of the diabetic complications can give us an opportunity to prevent and/or treat the following complications and improves quality of life for patients and society. In this review, we studied the mechanisms of angiogenesis in micro-vascular and macro-vascular complications of diabetes mellitus.International journal of preventive medicine 12/2012; 3(12):827-38. DOI:10.4103/2008-7802.104853