Initiation of an Abacavir-Containing Regimen in HIV-Infected Adults Is Associated with a Smaller Decrease in Inflammation and Endothelial Activation Markers Compared to Non-Abacavir-Containing Regimens.
ABSTRACT Abstract Abacavir has been associated with myocardial infarction in several studies. This may be related to inflammation and endothelial cell activation. We compared changes in inflammation and endothelial activation markers between antiretroviral-naive adults initiating zidovudine, lamivudine, abacavir, and nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) or this regimen without abacavir. Changes in soluble tumor necrosis factor receptors-I, -II (sTNFR-I, -II), high sensitivity C-reactive protein, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (sVCAM-1) from baseline (pre-ART) to a second time point about 24 weeks after initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) were compared between groups using multivariable linear regression. A total of 37 met eligibility criteria; 12 received abacavir. The median (interquartile range) age was 37 years (27-45). Most were men (32/37), African-American (15/37), or white (15/37). The median nadir CD4(+) and baseline HIV-1 RNA were 230 cells/mm(3) (180-301) and 82,642 copies/ml (34,400-204,703). In all, 15/30 smoked, 7/37 had hypertension, 1/37 had diabetes, and 1/37 had hyperlipidemia. None had coronary or renal disease. Changes in CD4(+) and HIV-1 RNA level and timing of stored samples with regard to ART initiation were not different between groups. In univariable analysis, log transformed percent change in sTNFR-I (p=0.05) and -II (p=0.04) showed significant between-group differences and trended toward significance for sVCAM-1 (p=0.08). These markers decreased less in the abacavir group. After adjustment for confounders, significantly less decrease for sTNFR-II and sVCAM-1 was seen for those receiving the abacavir-containing regimen. When taken with an NNRTI, abacavir induced a smaller decrease in inflammation biomarkers in this cohort, suggesting a possible proinflammatory effect of this nucleoside analogue.
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ABSTRACT: Soluble CD14 (sCD14) is a monocyte activation marker associated with increased mortality in HIV infection. We assessed 48-week changes in sCD14 and other inflammatory biomarkers in virologically suppressed, HIV-infected women switching to raltegravir (RAL) from a protease inhibitor (PI) or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). HIV-infected women with central adiposity and HIV-1 RNA < 50 HIV-1 RNA copies/mL continued their thymidine-sparing nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) backbone and were randomized to switch to open-label RAL at week 0 (immediate) or 24 (delayed). In an exploratory analysis, inflammatory biomarkers were measured on stored fasting plasma. Of the 37 evaluable subjects, 78% were non-White; the median age was 43 years, the median body mass index (BMI) was 32 kg/m(2) and the median CD4 count was 558 cells/μL. At baseline, biomarker values were similar between groups. After 24 weeks, median sCD14 significantly declined in subjects switching to RAL [-21% (P < 0.001) vs. PI/NNRTI -5% (P = 0.49); between-group P < 0.01]. After 48 weeks, immediate-switch subjects maintained this decline and delayed-switch subjects experienced a similar decline following the switch to RAL (-10%; within-group P < 0.01). Immediate-switch subjects also experienced an initial increase in tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α that was neither maintained after 48 weeks nor seen in delayed-switch subjects. After adjustment for multiple testing, only declines in sCD14 remained significant. In this randomized trial of women with central adiposity, a switch to RAL from a PI or NNRTI was associated with a statistically significant decline in sCD14. Further studies are needed to determine whether integrase inhibitors have improved monocyte activation profiles compared with PIs and/or NNRTIs, and whether measured differences between antiretroviral agents translate to demonstrable clinical benefit.HIV Medicine 02/2014; 15(7). DOI:10.1111/hiv.12128 · 3.45 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: The objective of this review is to appraise recently published literature that describes the relationship between HIV, biologic and environmental risk factors, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk with particular emphasis on the aging HIV population and to demonstrate that these biologic and environmental factors may interact to increase the risk of CVD in the HIV population. The mechanisms linking HIV and CVD are multifactorial and encompass biological and 'environmental' modalities including multimorbid conditions that co-occur with HIV, immunologic alterations associated with HIV, polypharmacy (which affects adherence and increases likelihood of adverse drug-drug interactions) and healthcare disparities in CVD risk reduction by HIV status. Data regarding optimal treatment strategies that balance immunological restoration and CVD risk reduction are needed.Current opinion in HIV and AIDS 05/2014; DOI:10.1097/COH.0000000000000065 · 4.39 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: To compare changes in gene expression by microarray from subcutaneous adipose tissue from HIV treatment naïve patients treated with efavirenz based regimens containing abacavir (ABC), tenofovir (TDF) or zidovidine (AZT). Subcutaneous fat biopsies were obtained before, at 6- and 18-24-months after treatment, and from HIV negative controls. Groups were age, ethnicity, weight, biochemical profile, and pre-treatment CD4 count matched. Microarray data was generated using the Agilent Whole Human Genome Microarray. Identification of differentially expressed genes and genomic response pathways was performed using limma and gene set enrichment analysis. There were significant divergences between ABC and the other two groups 6 months after treatment in genes controlling cell adhesion and environmental information processing, with some convergence at 18-24 months. Compared to controls the ABC group, but not AZT or TDF showed enrichment of genes controlling adherence junction, at 6 months and 18-24 months (adjusted p<0.05) and focal adhesions and tight junction at 6 months (p<0.5). Genes controlling leukocyte transendothelial migration (p<0.05) and ECM-receptor interactions (p = 0.04) were over-expressed in ABC compared to TDF and AZT at 6 months but not at 18-24 months. Enrichment of pathways and individual genes controlling cell adhesion and environmental information processing were specifically dysregulated in the ABC group in comparison with other treatments. There was little difference between AZT and TDF. After initiating treatment, there is divergence in the expression of genes controlling cell adhesion and environmental information processing between ABC and both TDF and AZT in subcutaneous adipose tissue. If similar changes are also taking place in other tissues including the coronary vasculature they may contribute to the increased risk of cardiovascular events reported in patients recently started on abacavir-containing regimens.PLoS ONE 01/2015; 10(1):e0117164. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0117164 · 3.53 Impact Factor