Enhancement of the proline and nitric oxide synthetic pathway improves fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions in industrial baker's yeast.

Graduate School of Biological Sciences, Nara Institute of Science and Technology, 8916-5 Takayama, Ikoma, Nara 630-0192, Japan.
Microbial Cell Factories (Impact Factor: 3.31). 04/2012; 11:40. DOI: 10.1186/1475-2859-11-40
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT During the bread-making process, industrial baker's yeast, mostly Saccharomyces cerevisiae, is exposed to baking-associated stresses, such as air-drying and freeze-thaw stress. These baking-associated stresses exert severe injury to yeast cells, mainly due to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to cell death and reduced fermentation ability. Thus, there is a great need for a baker's yeast strain with higher tolerance to baking-associated stresses. Recently, we revealed a novel antioxidative mechanism in a laboratory yeast strain that is involved in stress-induced nitric oxide (NO) synthesis from proline via proline oxidase Put1 and N-acetyltransferase Mpr1. We also found that expression of the proline-feedback inhibition-less sensitive mutant γ-glutamyl kinase (Pro1-I150T) and the thermostable mutant Mpr1-F65L resulted in an enhanced fermentation ability of baker's yeast in bread dough after freeze-thaw stress and air-drying stress, respectively. However, baker's yeast strains with high fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stresses have not yet been developed.
We constructed a self-cloned diploid baker's yeast strain with enhanced proline and NO synthesis by expressing Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L in the presence of functional Put1. The engineered strain increased the intracellular NO level in response to air-drying stress, and the strain was tolerant not only to oxidative stress but also to both air-drying and freeze-thaw stresses probably due to the reduced intracellular ROS level. We also showed that the resultant strain retained higher leavening activity in bread dough after air-drying and freeze-thaw stress than that of the wild-type strain. On the other hand, enhanced stress tolerance and fermentation ability did not occur in the put1-deficient strain. This result suggests that NO is synthesized in baker's yeast from proline in response to oxidative stresses that induce ROS generation and that increased NO plays an important role in baking-associated stress tolerance.
In this work, we clarified the importance of Put1- and Mpr1-mediated NO generation from proline to the baking-associated stress tolerance in industrial baker's yeast. We also demonstrated that baker's yeast that enhances the proline and NO synthetic pathway by expressing the Pro1-I150T and Mpr1-F65L variants showed improved fermentation ability under multiple baking-associated stress conditions. From a biotechnological perspective, the enhancement of proline and NO synthesis could be promising for breeding novel baker's yeast strains.

  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Fermentation of sugars released from lignocellulosic biomass (LCMs) is a sustainable option for the production of bioethanol. LCMs release fermentable hexose sugars and the currently non-fermentable pentose sugars; ethanol yield from lignocellulosic residues is dependent on the efficient conversion of available sugars to ethanol, a side-product of the process is acetic acid production. Presence of acetic acid reduced metabolic output and growth when compared with controls; however, it was observed that incubation with proline had a protective effect, which was proline specific and concentration dependent; the protective effect did not extend to furan or phenolic stressed yeast cells. Proline accumulating strains displayed tolerance to acetic acid when compared with background strains, whereas, strains with a compromised proline metabolism displayed sensitivity. Sensitivity to weak acids appears to be reduced with the addition of proline; proline is an imino acid freely available as a nitrogen source in the aerobic phase of fermentations. Yeast strains with higher intracellular proline concentrations would be desirable for industrial bioethanol fermentations.
    Antonie van Leeuwenhoek 02/2014; · 2.07 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mpr1 (sigma1278b gene for proline-analog resistance 1), which was originally isolated as N-acetyltransferase detoxifying the proline analog l-azetidine-2-carboxylate, protects yeast cells from various oxidative stresses. Mpr1 mediates the l-proline and l-arginine metabolism by acetylating l-Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate, leading to the l-arginine-dependent production of nitric oxide, which confers oxidative stress tolerance. Mpr1 belongs to the Gcn5-related N-acetyltransferase (GNAT) superfamily, but exhibits poor sequence homology with the GNAT enzymes and unique substrate specificity. Here, we present the X-ray crystal structure of Mpr1 and its complex with the substrate cis-4-hydroxy-l-proline at 1.9 and 2.3 Å resolution, respectively. Mpr1 is folded into α/β-structure with eight-stranded mixed β-sheets and six α-helices. The substrate binds to Asn135 and the backbone amide of Asn172 and Leu173, and the predicted acetyl-CoA-binding site is located near the backbone amide of Phe138 and the side chain of Asn178. Alanine substitution of Asn178, which can interact with the sulfur of acetyl-CoA, caused a large reduction in the apparent kcat value. The replacement of Asn135 led to a remarkable increase in the apparent Km value. These results indicate that Asn178 and Asn135 play an important role in catalysis and substrate recognition, respectively. Such a catalytic mechanism has not been reported in the GNAT proteins. Importantly, the amino acid substitutions in these residues increased the l-Δ(1)-pyrroline-5-carboxylate level in yeast cells exposed to heat stress, indicating that these residues are also crucial for its physiological functions. These studies provide some benefits of Mpr1 applications, such as the breeding of industrial yeasts and the development of antifungal drugs.
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 07/2013; · 9.81 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Mitochondria are sites of oxidative respiration. During sake brewing, sake yeasts are exposed to long periods of hypoxia; the structure, role, and metabolism of mitochondria of sake yeasts have not been studied in detail. It was first elucidated that the mitochondrial structure of sake yeast transforms from filamentous to dotted structure during sake brewing, which affects malate metabolism. Based on the information of yeast mitochondria during sake brewing, practical technologies have been developed; (i) breeding pyruvate-underproducing sake yeast by the isolation of a mutant resistant to an inhibitor of mitochondrial pyruvate transport; and (ii) modifying malate and succinate production by manipulating mitochondrial activity. During the bread-making process, baker's yeast cells are exposed to a variety of baking-associated stresses, such as freeze-thaw, air-drying, and high sucrose concentrations. These treatments induce oxidative stress generating reactive oxygen species due to mitochondrial damage. A novel metabolism of proline and arginine catalyzed by N-acetyltransferase Mpr1 in the mitochondria eventually leads to synthesis of nitric oxide, which confers oxidative stress tolerance on yeast cells. The enhancement of proline and arginine metabolism could be promising for breeding novel baker's yeast strains that are tolerant to multiple baking-associated stresses. These new and practical methods provide approaches to improve the processes in the field of industrial fermentation technologies.
    Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering 10/2013; · 1.74 Impact Factor


1 Download
Available from