HLA-B7-restricted EBV-specific CD8+ T cells are dysregulated in multiple sclerosis.
ABSTRACT It was hypothesized that the EBV-specific CD8(+) T cell response may be dysregulated in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients, possibly leading to a suboptimal control of this virus. To examine the CD8(+) T cell response in greater detail, we analyzed the HLA-A2-, HLA-B7-, and HLA-B8-restricted EBV- and CMV-specific CD8(+) T cell responses in a high number of MS patients and control subjects using tetramers. Content in cytolytic granules, as well as cytotoxic activity, of EBV- and CMV-specific CD8(+) T cells was assessed. We found that MS patients had a lower or a higher prevalence of HLA-A2 and HLA-B7, respectively. Using HLA class I tetramers in HLA-B7(+) MS patients, there was a higher prevalence of MS patients with HLA-B*0702/EBV(RPP)-specific CD8(+) T cells ex vivo. However, the magnitude of the HLA-B*0702/EBV(RPP)-specific and HLA-B*0702/CMV(TPR)-specific CD8(+) T cell response (i.e., the percentage of tetramer(+) CD8(+) T cells in a study subject harboring CD8(+) T cells specific for the given epitope) was lower in MS patients. No differences were found using other tetramers. After stimulation with the HLA-B*0702/EBV(RPP) peptide, the production of IL-2, perforin, and granzyme B and the cytotoxicity of HLA-B*0702/EBV(RPP)-specific CD8(+) T cells were decreased. Altogether, our findings suggest that the HLA-B*0702-restricted viral (in particular the EBV one)-specific CD8(+) T cell response is dysregulated in MS patients. This observation is particularly interesting knowing that the HLA-B7 allele is more frequently expressed in MS patients and considering that EBV is associated with MS.
Article: Increased CD8+ T Cell Response to Epstein-Barr Virus Lytic Antigens in the Active Phase of Multiple Sclerosis[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: It has long been known that multiple sclerosis (MS) is associated with an increased Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) seroprevalence and high immune reactivity to EBV and that infectious mononucleosis increases MS risk. This evidence led to postulate that EBV infection plays a role in MS etiopathogenesis, although the mechanisms are debated. This study was designed to assess the prevalence and magnitude of CD8+ T-cell responses to EBV latent (EBNA-3A, LMP-2A) and lytic (BZLF-1, BMLF-1) antigens in relapsing-remitting MS patients (n = 113) and healthy donors (HD) (n = 43) and to investigate whether the EBVspecific CD8+ T cell response correlates with disease activity, as defined by clinical evaluation and gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging. Using HLA class I pentamers, lytic antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses were detected in fewer untreated inactive MS patients than in active MS patients and HD while the frequency of CD8+ T cells specific for EBV lytic and latent antigens was higher in active and inactive MS patients, respectively. In contrast, the CD8+ T cell response to cytomegalovirus did not differ between HD and MS patients, irrespective of the disease phase. Marked differences in the prevalence of EBV-specific CD8+ T cell responses were observed in patients treated with interferon-b and natalizumab, two licensed drugs for relapsing-remitting MS. Longitudinal studies revealed expansion of CD8+ T cells specific for EBV lytic antigens during active disease in untreated MS patients but not in relapse-free, natalizumab-treated patients. Analysis of post-mortem MS brain samples showed expression of the EBV lytic protein BZLF-1 and interactions between cytotoxic CD8+ T cells and EBV lytically infected plasma cells in inflammatory white matter lesions and meninges. We therefore propose that inability to control EBV infection during inactive MS could set the stage for intracerebral viral reactivation and disease relapse.PLoS Pathogens 04/2013; 9(4):1. · 9.13 Impact Factor