Role of Galectin-3 in Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Inflammatory Mediator Production

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.
Toxicological Sciences (Impact Factor: 4.48). 03/2012; 127(2):609-19. DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfs117
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactoside-binding lectin implicated in the regulation of macrophage activation and inflammatory mediator production. In the present studies, we analyzed the role of Gal-3 in liver inflammation and injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP). Treatment of wild-type (WT) mice with APAP (300 mg/kg, ip) resulted in centrilobular hepatic necrosis and increases in serum transaminases. This was associated with increased hepatic expression of Gal-3 messenger RNA and protein. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Gal-3 was predominantly expressed by mononuclear cells infiltrating into necrotic areas. APAP-induced hepatotoxicity was reduced in Gal-3-deficient mice. This was most pronounced at 48-72 h post-APAP and correlated with decreases in APAP-induced expression of 24p3, a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress. These effects were not due to alterations in APAP metabolism or hepatic glutathione levels. The proinflammatory proteins, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1β, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and MIP-3α, as well as the Gal-3 receptor (CD98), were upregulated in livers of WT mice after APAP intoxication. Loss of Gal-3 resulted in a significant reduction in expression of iNOS, MMP-9, MIP-3α, and CD98, with no effects on IL-1β. Whereas APAP-induced increases in MIP-2 were augmented at 6 h in Gal-3(-/-) mice when compared with WT mice, at 48 and 72 h, they were suppressed. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) was also upregulated after APAP, a response dependent on Gal-3. Moreover, exaggerated APAP hepatotoxicity in mice lacking TNFR1 was associated with increased Gal-3 expression. These data demonstrate that Gal-3 is important in promoting inflammation and injury in the liver following APAP intoxication.

Download full-text


Available from: Debra Laskin, Jan 14, 2014
  • Source
    • "When the defense mechanisms are not sufficient to withstand the damaging attacks, cells start to synthesize chemokines such as monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) [17], gamma-interferon-inducible protein (IP-10) [17], cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC), and macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIPs) including MIP-1, MIP-2, and MIP-3 [18] that are thought to be responsible for attracting inflammatory cells like granulocytes and mononuclear phagocytes and for activating resident macrophages [19]. These chemokines are secreted by damaged hepatocytes, T, NK, and Kupffer cells in the acute inflammatory state [11] [12] [20]. On the other hand, IP-10 (CXCL10) and MIP-2 (CXCL-2) may lead to increased nuclear localization of the transcription factor signal transducer and the activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a major signal transduction factor in hepatocyte regeneration [21] [22] [23]. "
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: High doses of acetaminophen (APAP; N-acetyl-p-aminophenol) cause severe hepatotoxicity after metabolic activation by cytochrome P450 2E1. This study was undertaken to examine the preventive effects of thiacremonone, a compound extracted from garlic, on APAP-induced acute hepatic failure in male C57BL/6J. Mice received with 500 mg/kg APAP after a 7-day pretreatment with thiacremonone (10-50 mg/kg). Thiacremonone inhibited the APAP-induced serum ALT and AST levels in a dose-dependent manner, and markedly reduced the restricted area of necrosis and inflammation by administration of APAP. Thiacremonone also inhibited the APAP-induced depletion of intracellular GSH, induction of nitric oxide, and lipid peroxidation as well as expression of P450 2E1. After APAP injection, the numbers of Kupffer cells, natural killer cells, and cytotoxic T cells were elevated, but the elevated cell numbers in the liver were reduced in thiacremonone pretreated mice. The expression levels of I-309, M-CSF, MIG, MIP-1 α , MIP-1 β , IL-7, and IL-17 were increased by APAP treatment, which were inhibited in thiacremonone pretreated mice. These data indicate that thiacremonone could be a useful agent for the treatment of drug-induced hepatic failure and that the reduction of cytotoxic immune cells as well as proinflammatory cytokine production may be critical for the prevention of APAP-induced acute liver toxicity.
    Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine 07/2013; 2013:974794. DOI:10.1155/2013/974794 · 1.88 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Ozone is a pulmonary irritant known to cause oxidative stress, inflammation and tissue injury. Evidence suggests that macrophages play a role in the pathogenic response; however, their contribution depends on the mediators they encounter in the lung which dictate their function. In these studies we analyzed the effects of ozone-induced oxidative stress on the phenotype of alveolar macrophages (AM). Exposure of rats to ozone (2 ppm, 3h) resulted in increased expression of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), as well as heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in AM. Whereas 8-OHdG was maximum at 24h, expression of HO-1 was biphasic increasing after 3h and 48-72 h. Cleaved caspase-9 and beclin-1, markers of apoptosis and autophagy, were also induced in AM 24h post-ozone. This was associated with increased bronchoalveolar lavage protein and cells, as well as matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2 and MMP-9, demonstrating alveolar epithelial injury. Ozone intoxication resulted in biphasic activation of the transcription factor, NFκB. This correlated with expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, markers of proinflammatory macrophages. Increases in arginase-1, Ym1 and galectin-3 positive anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages were also observed in the lung after ozone inhalation, beginning at 24h (arginase-1, Ym1), and persisting for 72 h (galectin-3). This was associated with increased expression of pro-surfactant protein-C, a marker of Type II cell proliferation and activation, important steps in wound repair. These data suggest that both proinflammatory/cytotoxic and anti-inflammatory/wound repair macrophages are activated early in the response to ozone-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury.
    Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology 06/2012; 263(2):195-202. DOI:10.1016/j.taap.2012.06.009 · 3.63 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: The ability of rat hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells (HSEC) to become activated in response to diverse inflammatory stimuli was analyzed. Whereas the classical macrophage activators, IFNγ and/or LPS upregulated expression of iNOS in HSEC, the alternative macrophage activators, IL-10 or IL-4+IL-13 upregulated arginase-1 and mannose receptor. Similar upregulation of iNOS and arginase-1 was observed in classically and alternatively activated Kupffer cells, respectively. Removal of inducing stimuli from the cells had no effect on expression of these markers, demonstrating that activation is persistent. Washing and incubation of IFNγ treated cells with IL-4+IL-13 resulted in decreased iNOS and increased arginase-1 expression, while washing and incubation of IL-4+IL-13 treated cells with IFNγ resulted in decreased arginase-1 and increased iNOS, indicating that classical and alternative activation of the cells is reversible. HSEC were more sensitive to phenotypic switching than Kupffer cells, suggesting greater functional plasticity. Hepatocyte viability and expression of PCNA, β-catenin and MMP-9 increased in the presence of alternatively activated HSEC. In contrast, the viability of hepatocytes pretreated for 2h with 5mM acetaminophen decreased in the presence of classically activated HSEC. These data demonstrate that activated HSEC can modulate hepatocyte responses following injury. The ability of hepatocytes to activate HSEC was also investigated. Co-culture of HSEC with acetaminophen-injured hepatocytes, but not control hepatocytes, increased the sensitivity of HSEC to classical and alternative activating stimuli. The capacity of HSEC to respond to phenotypic activators may represent an important mechanism by which they participate in inflammatory responses associated with hepatotoxicity.
    Experimental and Molecular Pathology 10/2012; 94(1). DOI:10.1016/j.yexmp.2012.10.015 · 2.88 Impact Factor

Similar Publications