Role of Galectin-3 in Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity and Inflammatory Mediator Production

Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Ernest Mario School of Pharmacy, Rutgers University, Piscataway, New Jersey 08854, USA.
Toxicological Sciences (Impact Factor: 3.85). 03/2012; 127(2):609-19. DOI: 10.1093/toxsci/kfs117
Source: PubMed


Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a β-galactoside-binding lectin implicated in the regulation of macrophage activation and inflammatory mediator production. In the present studies, we analyzed the role of Gal-3 in liver inflammation and injury induced by acetaminophen (APAP). Treatment of wild-type (WT) mice with APAP (300 mg/kg, ip) resulted in centrilobular hepatic necrosis and increases in serum transaminases. This was associated with increased hepatic expression of Gal-3 messenger RNA and protein. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that Gal-3 was predominantly expressed by mononuclear cells infiltrating into necrotic areas. APAP-induced hepatotoxicity was reduced in Gal-3-deficient mice. This was most pronounced at 48-72 h post-APAP and correlated with decreases in APAP-induced expression of 24p3, a marker of inflammation and oxidative stress. These effects were not due to alterations in APAP metabolism or hepatic glutathione levels. The proinflammatory proteins, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), interleukin (IL)-1β, macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-2, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, and MIP-3α, as well as the Gal-3 receptor (CD98), were upregulated in livers of WT mice after APAP intoxication. Loss of Gal-3 resulted in a significant reduction in expression of iNOS, MMP-9, MIP-3α, and CD98, with no effects on IL-1β. Whereas APAP-induced increases in MIP-2 were augmented at 6 h in Gal-3(-/-) mice when compared with WT mice, at 48 and 72 h, they were suppressed. Tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1) was also upregulated after APAP, a response dependent on Gal-3. Moreover, exaggerated APAP hepatotoxicity in mice lacking TNFR1 was associated with increased Gal-3 expression. These data demonstrate that Gal-3 is important in promoting inflammation and injury in the liver following APAP intoxication.

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Available from: Debra Laskin, Jan 14, 2014
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    • "While the proximate molecular pathway for reducing iNOS is not known, it appears that the effect of GR-MD-02 on the inflammatory process, possibly due to an effect on macrophages, results in decreased iNOS which may have an important effect on liver inflammation and damage. This finding also suggests that the effect of gal-3 and inhibitors on macrophage phenotype and/or function may be complex affecting not only the M2 phenotype, but also the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype, as shown in liver toxin damage by Dragomir, et al.[56], [57]. "
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    • "When the defense mechanisms are not sufficient to withstand the damaging attacks, cells start to synthesize chemokines such as monokine induced by gamma interferon (MIG) [17], gamma-interferon-inducible protein (IP-10) [17], cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant (KC), and macrophage inflammatory proteins (MIPs) including MIP-1, MIP-2, and MIP-3 [18] that are thought to be responsible for attracting inflammatory cells like granulocytes and mononuclear phagocytes and for activating resident macrophages [19]. These chemokines are secreted by damaged hepatocytes, T, NK, and Kupffer cells in the acute inflammatory state [11] [12] [20]. On the other hand, IP-10 (CXCL10) and MIP-2 (CXCL-2) may lead to increased nuclear localization of the transcription factor signal transducer and the activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), a major signal transduction factor in hepatocyte regeneration [21] [22] [23]. "
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    • "Galectin-3 levels have been shown to correlate with inflammation and fibrosis in multiple in vivo studies. Tissue galectin-3 levels were consistently elevated in animal models following an induced injury, and the studies included antigen-induced arthritis, acetaminophen-induced liver injury, concanavalin-A-induced hepatitis, and bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis [8, 9, 10, 11]. In each of these studies, control animals were compared with knockout mice deficient in galectin-3. "
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