Article

Mouse intragastric infusion (iG) model.

Southern California Research Center for ALPD and Cirrhosis, Keck School of Medicine of the University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California, USA.
Nature Protocol (Impact Factor: 8.36). 04/2012; 7(4):771-81. DOI: 10.1038/nprot.2012.014
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Direct intragastric delivery of a diet, nutrient or test substance can be achieved in rodents (mice and rats) on a long-term (2-3 months) basis using a chronically implanted gastrostomy catheter and a flow-through swivel system. This rodent intragastric infusion (iG) model has broad applications in research on food intake, gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, GI neuroendocrinology, drug metabolism and toxicity, obesity and liver disease. It achieves maximal control over the rate and pattern of delivery and it can be combined with normal ad libitum feeding of solid diet if so desired. It may be adopted to achieve infusion at other sites of the GI system to test the role of a bypassed GI segment in neuroendocrine physiology, and its use in genetic mouse models facilitates the genetic analysis of a central question under investigation.

0 Bookmarks
 · 
82 Views
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alcohol consumption is a major cause of liver disease in humans. The use and monitoring of biomarkers associated with early, pre-clinical stages of alcohol-induced liver disease (pre-ALD) could facilitate diagnosis and treatment, leading to improved outcomes. We investigated the pathological, transcriptomic and protein changes in early stages of pre-ALD in mice fed the Lieber-Decarli liquid diet with or without alcohol for four months to identify biomarkers for the early stage of alcohol induced liver injury. Mice were sampled after 1, 2 and 4 months treatment. Pathological examination revealed a modest increase in fatty liver changes in alcohol-treated mice. Transcriptomics revealed gene alterations at all time points. Most notably, the Igfbp1 (Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 1) was selected as the best candidate gene for early detection of liver damage since it showed early and continuously enhanced induction during the treatment course. Consistent with the microarray data, both Igfbp1mRNA expression in the liver tissue and the IGFBP1 serum protein levels showed progressive and significant increases over the course of pre-ALD development. The results suggest that in conjunction with other tests, serum IGFBPI protein could provide an easily measured biomarker for early detection of alcohol-induced liver injury in humans.
    Journal of Translational Medicine 10/2013; 11(1):266. · 3.46 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Chronic alcohol consumption is a leading cause of chronic liver disease worldwide, leading to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Currently, the most widely used model for alcoholic liver injury is ad libitum feeding with the Lieber-DeCarli liquid diet containing ethanol for 4-6 weeks; however, this model, without the addition of a secondary insult, only induces mild steatosis, slight elevation of serum alanine transaminase (ALT) and little or no inflammation. Here we describe a simple mouse model of alcoholic liver injury by chronic ethanol feeding (10-d ad libitum oral feeding with the Lieber-DeCarli ethanol liquid diet) plus a single binge ethanol feeding. This protocol for chronic-plus-single-binge ethanol feeding synergistically induces liver injury, inflammation and fatty liver, which mimics acute-on-chronic alcoholic liver injury in patients. This feeding protocol can also be extended to chronic feeding for longer periods of time up to 8 weeks plus single or multiple binges. Chronic-binge ethanol feeding leads to high blood alcohol levels; thus, this simple model will be very useful for the study of alcoholic liver disease (ALD) and of other organs damaged by alcohol consumption.
    Nature Protocol 02/2013; 8(3):627-37. · 8.36 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Alcohol abuse is commonly associated with the development of both acute and chronic pancreatitis. Despite this close association, the fact that only a small percentage of human beings who abuse alcohol develop pancreatitis indicates that alcohol abuse alone is not sufficient to initiate clinical pancreatitis. This contention is further supported by the fact that administration of ethanol to experimental animals does not cause pancreatitis. Because of these findings, it is widely believed that ethanol sensitizes the pancreas to injury and additional factors trigger the development of overt pancreatitis. How ethanol sensitizes the pancreas to pancreatitis is not entirely known. Numerous studies have demonstrated that ethanol and its metabolites have a number of deleterious effects on acinar cells. Important acinar cells properties that are affected by ethanol include: calcium signaling, secretion of zymogens, autophagy, cellular regeneration, the unfolded protein response, and mitochondrial membrane integrity. In addition to the actions of ethanol on acinar cells, it is apparent that ethanol also affects pancreatic stellate cells. Pancreatic stellate cells have a critical role in normal tissue repair and the pathologic fibrotic response. Given that ethanol and its metabolites affect so many pancreatic functions, and that all of these effects occur simultaneously, it is likely that none of these effects is "THE" effect. Instead, it is most likely that the cumulative effect of ethanol on the pancreas predisposes the organ to pancreatitis. The focus of this article is to highlight some of the important mechanisms by which ethanol alters pancreatic functions and may predispose the pancreas to disease.
    World journal of gastrointestinal pathophysiology. 08/2014; 5(3):147-57.

Full-text

Download
1 Download
Available from