Chemokine-like receptor 1 regulates skeletal muscle cell myogenesis.
ABSTRACT The chemokine-like receptor-1 (CMKLR1) is a G protein-coupled receptor that is activated by chemerin, a secreted plasma leukocyte attractant and adipokine. Previous studies identified that CMKLR1 is expressed in skeletal muscle in a stage-specific fashion during embryogenesis and in adult mice; however, its function in skeletal muscle remains unclear. Based on the established function of CMKLR1 in cell migration and differentiation, we investigated the hypothesis that CMKLR1 regulates the differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes. In C(2)C(12) mouse myoblasts, CMKLR1 expression increased threefold with differentiation into multinucleated myotubes. Decreasing CMKLR1 expression by adenoviral-delivered small-hairpin RNA (shRNA) impaired the differentiation of C(2)C(12) myoblasts into mature myotubes and reduced the mRNA expression of myogenic regulatory factors myogenin and MyoD while increasing Myf5 and Mrf4. At embryonic day 12.5 (E12.5), CMKLR1 knockout (CMKLR1(-/-)) mice appeared developmentally delayed and displayed significantly lower wet weights and a considerably diminished myotomal component of somites as revealed by immunolocalization of myosin heavy chain protein compared with wild-type (CMKLR1(+/+)) mouse embryos. These changes were associated with increased Myf5 and decreased MyoD protein expression in the somites of E12.5 CMKLR1(-/-) mouse embryos. Adult male CMKLR1(-/-) mice had significantly reduced bone-free lean mass and weighed less than the CMKLR1(+/+) mice. We conclude that CMKLR1 is essential for myogenic differentiation of C(2)C(12) cells in vitro, and the CMKLR1 null mice have a subtle skeletal muscle deficit beginning from embryonic life that persists during postnatal life.
- SourceAvailable from: Stephen F Konieczny[show abstract] [hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Embryonic skeletal muscle development has become a paradigm for understanding the molecular basis of how cell lineages are established and how cells differentiate into specialized structures. Most vertebrate muscles are derived from individual somites that produce two distinct muscle populations: the myotomal muscles that generate the axial and trunk musculature and a second migratory cell population that colonizes regions of the developing limbs. In both instances, muscle differentiation is accompanied by cell cycle arrest, fusion of individual myoblasts into multinucleate myotubes, and the transcriptional activation of muscle-specific genes. Recent experimental progress has led to greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms that control myogenesis in the embryo. Most of the advances have come from the identification and isolation of regulatory genes that are involved in controlling specific transcriptional events. In particular, the muscle regulatory factor (MRF) and myocyte enhancer factor 2 (MEF2) families have been implicated in establishing the myogenic lineage as well as controlling terminal differentiation. Two additional transcription factors, Pax-3 and MLP, also appear to play a role in the production of a mature muscle cell. This review focuses on these four vertebrate transcription factor families and discusses the experimental evidence that these factors play important, non-overlapping roles in regulating skeletal muscle development.The FASEB Journal 01/1996; 9(15):1595-604. · 5.70 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Heterokaryons provide a model system in which to examine how tissue-specific phenotypes arise and are maintained. When muscle cells are fused with nonmuscle cells, muscle gene expression is activated in the nonmuscle cell type. Gene expression was studied either at a single cell level with monoclonal antibodies or in mass cultures at a biochemical and molecular level. In all of the nonmuscle cell types tested, including representatives of different embryonic lineages, phenotypes, and developmental stages, muscle gene expression was induced. Differences among cell types in the kinetics, frequency, and gene dosage requirements for gene expression provide clues to the underlying regulatory mechanisms. These results show that the expression of genes in the nuclei of differentiated cells is remarkably plastic and susceptible to modulation by the cytoplasm. The isolation of the genes encoding the tissue-specific trans-acting regulators responsible for muscle gene activation should now be possible.Science 12/1985; 230(4727):758-66. · 31.03 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Chemerin is a chemotactic protein that binds to the G protein-coupled receptor, ChemR23. We demonstrate that murine chemerin possesses potent antiinflammatory properties that are absolutely dependent on proteolytic processing. A series of peptides was designed, and only those identical to specific C-terminal chemerin sequences exerted antiinflammatory effects at picomolar concentrations in vitro. One of these, chemerin15 (C15; A(140)-A(154)), inhibited macrophage (MPhi) activation to a similar extent as proteolyzed chemerin, but exhibited reduced activity as a MPhi chemoattractant. Intraperitoneal administration of C15 (0.32 ng/kg) to mice before zymosan challenge conferred significant protection against zymosan-induced peritonitis, suppressing neutrophil (63%) and monocyte (62%) recruitment with a concomitant reduction in proinflammatory mediator expression. Importantly, C15 was unable to ameliorate zymosan-induced peritonitis in ChemR23(-/-) mice, demonstrating that C15's antiinflammatory effects are entirely ChemR23 dependent. In addition, administration of neutralizing anti-chemerin antibody before zymosan challenge resulted in a significant exacerbation of peritoneal inflammation (up to 170%), suggesting an important endogenous antiinflammatory role for chemerin-derived species. Collectively, these results show that chemerin-derived peptides may represent a novel therapeutic strategy for the treatment of inflammatory diseases through ChemR23.Journal of Experimental Medicine 05/2008; 205(4):767-75. · 13.21 Impact Factor