New insights into the dynamic regulation of water and acid-base balance by renal epithelial cells
ABSTRACT Maintaining tight control over body fluid and acid-base homeostasis is essential for human health and is a major function of the kidney. The collecting duct is a mosaic of two cell populations that are highly specialized to perform these two distinct processes. The antidiuretic hormone vasopressin (VP) and its receptor, the V2R, play a central role in regulating the urinary concentrating mechanism by stimulating accumulation of the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) water channel in the apical membrane of collecting duct principal cells. This increases epithelial water permeability and allows osmotic water reabsorption to occur. An understanding of the basic cell biology/physiology of AQP2 regulation and trafficking has informed the development of new potential treatments for diseases such as nephrogenic diabetes insipidus, in which the VP/V2R/AQP2 signaling axis is defective. Tubule acidification due to the activation of intercalated cells is also critical to organ function, and defects lead to several pathological conditions in humans. Therefore, it is important to understand how these "professional" proton-secreting cells respond to environmental and cellular cues. Using epididymal proton-secreting cells as a model system, we identified the soluble adenylate cyclase (sAC) as a sensor that detects luminal bicarbonate and activates the vacuolar proton-pumping ATPase (V-ATPase) via cAMP to regulate tubular pH. Renal intercalated cells also express sAC and respond to cAMP by increasing proton secretion, supporting the hypothesis that sAC could function as a luminal sensor in renal tubules to regulate acid-base balance. This review summarizes recent advances in our understanding of these fundamental processes.
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ABSTRACT: In renal collecting duct (CD) principal cells (PCs), vasopressin (VP) acts through its receptor, V2R, to increase intracellular cAMP leading to phosphorylation and apical membrane accumulation of the water channel aquaporin 2 (AQP2). The trafficking and function of basolaterally located AQP2 is, however, poorly understood. Here we report the successful application of a 3-dimensional Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial model to study polarized AQP2 trafficking. This model recapitulates the luminal architecture of the CD and bi-polarized distribution of AQP2 as seen in kidney. Without stimulation, AQP2 is located in the subapical and basolateral regions. Treatment with VP, forskolin (FK), or 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate monosodium hydrate (CPT-cAMP) leads to translocation of cytosolic AQP2 to the apical membrane, but not to the basolateral membrane. Treating cells with methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD) to acutely block endocytosis causes accumulation of AQP2 on the basolateral membrane, but not on the apical membrane. Our data suggest that AQP2 may traffic differently at the apical and basolateral domains in this 3D epithelial model. In addition, application of a panel of phosphorylation specific AQP2 antibodies reveals the polarized, subcellular localization of differentially phosphorylated AQP2 at S256, S261, S264 and S269 in the 3D culture model, which is consistent with observations made in the CDs of VP treated animals, suggesting the preservation of phosphorylation dependent regulatory mechanism of AQP2 trafficking in this model. Therefore we have established a 3D culture model for the study of trafficking and regulation of both the apical and basolaterally targeted AQP2. The new model will enable further characterization of the complex mechanism regulating bi-polarized trafficking of AQP2 in vitro.PLoS ONE 10(7):e0131719. DOI:10.1371/journal.pone.0131719 · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Unlike human patients with mutations in the 56-kDa B1 subunit isoform of the vacuolar proton-pumping ATPase (V-ATPase), B1-deficient mice (Atp6v1b1(-/-)) do not develop metabolic acidosis under baseline conditions. This is due to the insertion of V-ATPases containing the alternative B2 subunit isoform into the apical membrane of renal medullary collecting duct intercalated cells (ICs). We previously reported that quantitative Western blots (WBs) from whole kidneys showed similar B2 protein levels in Atp6v1b1(-/-) and wild type mice. However, WBs from renal medulla (including outer and inner medulla) membrane and cytosol fractions reveal a decrease in the levels of the ubiquitous V-ATPase E1 subunit. To compare V-ATPase expression specifically in ICs from wild type and Atp6v1b1(-/-) mice, we crossed mice in which EGFP expression is driven by the B1 subunit promoter (EGFP-B1(+/+) mice) with Atp6v1b1(-/-) mice to generate novel EGFP-B1(-/-) mice. We isolated pure IC populations by fluorescence-assisted cell sorting from EGFP-B1(+/+) and EGFP-B1(-/-) mice to compare their V-ATPase subunit protein levels. We report that V-ATPase A, E1, and H subunits are all significantly down-regulated in EGFP-B1(-/-) mice, while the B2 protein level is considerably increased in these animals. We conclude that under baseline conditions the B2 up-regulation compensates for the lack of B1, and is sufficient to maintain basal acid-base homeostasis, even when other V-ATPase subunits are down-regulated.AJP Renal Physiology 12/2012; 304(5). DOI:10.1152/ajprenal.00394.2012 · 4.42 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Abstract During bouts of torpor, mitochondrial metabolism is known to be suppressed in the liver and skeletal muscle of hibernating mammals. This suppression is rapidly reversed during interbout euthermic (IBE) phases, when whole-animal metabolic rate and body temperature (T(b)) return spontaneously to euthermic levels. Such mitochondrial suppression may contribute significantly to energy savings, but the capacity of other tissues to suppress mitochondrial metabolism remains unclear. In this study we compared the metabolism of mitochondria from brain cortex and left ventricular cardiac muscle between animals sampled while torpid (stable T(b) near 5°C) and in IBE (stable T(b) near 37°C). Instead of isolating mitochondria using the traditional methods of homogenization and centrifugation, we permeabilized tissue slices with saponin, allowing energetic substrates and inhibitors to access mitochondria. No significant differences in state 3 or state 4 respiration were observed between torpor and IBE in either tissue. In general, succinate produced the highest oxidation rates followed by pyruvate and then glutamate, palmitoyl carnitine, and β-hydroxybutyrate. These findings suggest that there is no suppression of mitochondrial metabolism or change in substrate preference in these two tissues despite the large changes in whole-animal metabolism seen between torpor and IBE.Physiological and Biochemical Zoology 01/2013; 86(1):1-8. DOI:10.1086/668853 · 2.05 Impact Factor