Does AKI truly lead to CKD?
ABSTRACT Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been implicated as an independent risk factor for the development of CKD in recent observational studies. The presumption in the nephrology community is that this association represents a causal relationship. However, because of potential problems related to residual confounding (shared risk factors), ascertainment bias (sicker patients have more follow-up assessments), misclassification of exposure (problems with defining baseline kidney function and AKI representing a discrete event versus progression of renal disease), and misclassification of outcome (de novo CKD versus CKD progression), it is difficult to conclude with certainty that AKI is truly causal for CKD. In this review we highlight several of the Hill causality criteria to examine the existing evidence and point out the missing elements that preclude defining AKI as a cause of CKD in the general population. Only well-designed studies with rigorous assessment of kidney function in all participants (AKI and non-AKI) before and after the episode or hospitalization or randomized, controlled trials demonstrating that prevention or treatment of AKI reduces the incidence of subsequent CKD can clarify the causal nature of the AKI-CKD relationship.
- SourceAvailable from: Laurie A Tomlinson[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: ACE Inhibitors (ACE-I) and Angiotensin-Receptor Antagonists (ARAs) are commonly prescribed but can cause acute kidney injury (AKI) during intercurrent illness. Rates of hospitalization with AKI are increasing. We aimed to determine whether hospital AKI admission rates are associated with increased ACE-I/ARA prescribing. English NHS prescribing data for ACE-I/ARA prescriptions were matched at the level of the general practice to numbers of hospital admissions with a primary diagnosis of AKI. Numbers of prescriptions were weighted for the demographic characteristics of general practices by expressing prescribing as rates where the denominator is Age, Sex, and Temporary Resident Originated Prescribing Units (ASTRO-PUs). We performed a mixed-effect Poisson regression to model the number of admissions for AKI occurring in each practice for each of 4 years from 1/4/2007. From 2007/8-2010/11, crude AKI admission rates increased from 0.38 to 0.57 per 1000 patients (51.6% increase), and national annual ACE-I/ARA prescribing rates increased by 0.032 from 0.202 to 0.234 (15.8% increase). There was strong evidence (p<0.001) that increases in practice-level prescribing of ACE-I/ARA over the study period were associated with an increase in AKI admission rates. The increase in prescribing seen in a typical practice corresponded to an increase in admissions of approximately 5.1% (rate ratio = 1.051 for a 0.03 per ASTRO-PU increase in annual prescribing rate, 95%CI 1.047-1.055). Using the regression model we predict that 1,636 (95%CI 1,540-1,780) AKI admissions would have been avoided if prescribing rates were at the 2007/8 level, equivalent to 14.8% of the total increase in AKI admissions. In this ecological analysis, up to 15% of the increase in AKI admissions in England over a 4-year time period is potentially attributable to increased prescribing of ACE-I and ARAs. However, these findings are limited by the lack of patient level data such as indication for prescribing and patient characteristics.PLoS ONE 01/2013; 8(11):e78465. · 3.53 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: Worldwide, acute kidney injury (AKI) is associated with poor patient outcomes. Over the last few years, collaborative efforts, enabled by a common definition of AKI, have provided a description of the epidemiology, natural history, and outcomes of this disease and improved our understanding of the pathophysiology. There is increased recognition that AKI is encountered in multiple settings and in all age groups, and that its course and outcomes are influenced by the severity and duration of the event. The effect of AKI on an individual patient and the resulting societal burden that ensues from the long-term effects of the disease, including development of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), is attracting increasing scrutiny. There is evidence of marked variation in the management of AKI, which is, to a large extent, due to a lack of awareness and an absence of standards for prevention, early recognition, and intervention. These emerging data point to an urgent need for a global effort to highlight that AKI is preventable, its course is modifiable, and its treatment can improve outcomes. In this article, we provide a framework of reference and propose specific strategies to raise awareness of AKI globally, with the goal to ultimately improve outcomes from this devastating disease.Kidney International advance online publication, 1 May 2013; doi:10.1038/ki.2013.153.Kidney International 05/2013; · 8.52 Impact Factor
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ABSTRACT: We previously reported that expression of the transcription factor, interferon regulatory factor 1 (IRF1), is an early, critical maladaptive signal expressed by renal tubules during murine ischemic AKI. We now show that IRF1 mediates signals from reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated during ischemic AKI, and that these signals ultimately result in production of α subtypes of Type I interferons (IFNαs). We found that genetic knockout of the common Type I IFN receptor (IFNARI -/-) improved kidney function and histology during AKI. There are major differences in the spatial-temporal production of the two major IFN subtypes, IFNβ and IFNαs: IFNβ expression peaks at 4 hr, earlier than IFNαs, and continues at the same level at 24 hr; expression of IFNαs also increases at 4 hr, but continues to increase through 24 hr. The magnitude of the increase in IFNαs relative to baseline is much greater than that of IFNβ. We show by immunohistology and study of isolated cells that IFNβ is produced by renal leukocytes and IFNαs are produced by renal tubules. IRF1, IFNαs, and IFNARI were found on the same renal tubules during ischemic AKI. Furthermore, we found that ROS induced IFNα expression by renal tubules in vitro. This expression was inhibited by siRNA knockdown of IRF1. Overexpression of IRF1 resulted in production of IFNαs. Furthermore, we found that IFNα stimulated production of maladaptive proinflammatory CXCL2 by renal tubular cells. Altogether our data supports the following autocrine pathway in renal tubular cells: ROS > IRF1 > IFNα > IFNARI > CXCL2.AJP Renal Physiology 05/2013; · 4.42 Impact Factor