Does AKI truly lead to CKD?
ABSTRACT Acute kidney injury (AKI) has been implicated as an independent risk factor for the development of CKD in recent observational studies. The presumption in the nephrology community is that this association represents a causal relationship. However, because of potential problems related to residual confounding (shared risk factors), ascertainment bias (sicker patients have more follow-up assessments), misclassification of exposure (problems with defining baseline kidney function and AKI representing a discrete event versus progression of renal disease), and misclassification of outcome (de novo CKD versus CKD progression), it is difficult to conclude with certainty that AKI is truly causal for CKD. In this review we highlight several of the Hill causality criteria to examine the existing evidence and point out the missing elements that preclude defining AKI as a cause of CKD in the general population. Only well-designed studies with rigorous assessment of kidney function in all participants (AKI and non-AKI) before and after the episode or hospitalization or randomized, controlled trials demonstrating that prevention or treatment of AKI reduces the incidence of subsequent CKD can clarify the causal nature of the AKI-CKD relationship.
Article: Acute kidney injury: quoi de neuf?[Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is frequently encountered in the nephrology practice. Serum creatinine, with its many shortcomings, is still the main biomarker used to detect AKI.Ochsner Journal 01/2014; 14(3):359-68.
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ABSTRACT: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common clinical entity associated with high morbidity and mortality and clinical costs. The pathophysiology is multifaceted and involves inflammation, tubular injury, and vascular damage. Recently identified components include necroptosis, a special form of cell death, and autophagy. Most of the pathophysiological knowledge is obtained from animal models but these do not directly reflect the reality of the clinical situation. Tubular cells have a remarkable capacity to regenerate, and the role of stem/progenitor cells is discussed. Acute kidney injury is frequently associated with chronic kidney disease, and the implications are widespread.F1000prime reports. 09/2014; 6:83.
- Critical care (London, England) 04/2014; 18(2):424. · 4.72 Impact Factor