Article

Antiviral IFN-γ responses of monocytes at birth predict respiratory tract illness in the first year of life.

Department of Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St Louis, MO, USA.
The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology (Impact Factor: 11.25). 03/2012; 129(5):1267-1273.e1. DOI: 10.1016/j.jaci.2012.02.033
Source: PubMed

ABSTRACT Viral respiratory tract infections are the leading cause of acute illness during infancy and are closely linked to chronic inflammatory airway diseases later in life. However, the determinants of susceptibility to acute respiratory tract infections still need to be defined.
We investigated whether the individual variation in antiviral response at birth determines the risk for acute respiratory tract illness in the first year of life.
We studied 82 children who were enrolled in a birth cohort study of inner-city children with at least 1 parent with allergy or asthma. We cultured cord blood monocytes and assessed IFNG and CCL5 mRNA production at 24 hours after inoculation with respiratory syncytial virus. We also monitored the frequency of acute respiratory tract illness at 3-month intervals and analyzed nasal lavage samples for respiratory tract viruses at the time of illness during the first year.
Respiratory tract infection was reported for 88% of subjects, and respiratory tract viruses were recovered in 74% of symptomatic children. We observed a wide range of antiviral responses in cord blood monocytes across the population. Furthermore, a decrease in production of IFNG (but not CCL5) mRNA in response to respiratory syncytial virus infection of monocytes was associated with a significant increase in the frequency of upper respiratory tract infections (r = -0.42, P < .001) and the prevalence of ear and sinus infections, pneumonias, and respiratory-related hospitalizations.
Individual variations in the innate immune response to respiratory tract viruses are detectable even at birth, and these differences predict the susceptibility to acute respiratory tract illness during the first year of life.

Download full-text

Full-text

Available from: Kaharu Sumino, May 29, 2015
1 Follower
 · 
175 Views
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Research on the pathogenesis of asthma has traditionally concentrated on environmental stimuli, genetic susceptibilities, adaptive immune responses, and end-organ alterations (particularly in airway mucous cells and smooth muscle) as critical steps leading to disease. The focus of this cascade has been the response to allergic stimuli. An alternative scheme suggests that respiratory viruses and the consequent response of the innate immune system also drives the development of asthma as well as related inflammatory diseases. This conceptual shift raises the possibility that sentinel cells such as airway epithelial cells, DCs, NKT cells, innate lymphoid cells, and macrophages also represent critical components of asthma pathogenesis as well as new targets for therapeutic discovery. A particular challenge will be to understand and balance the innate as well as the adaptive immune responses to defend the host against acute infection as well as chronic inflammatory disease.
    The Journal of clinical investigation 08/2012; 122(8):2741-8. DOI:10.1172/JCI60325 · 13.77 Impact Factor
  • [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Impaired immune response to viral infections in atopic asthmatic patients has been recently reported and debated. Whether this condition is present in childhood and whether it is affected by atopy per se deserves further investigation. OBJECTIVE: We sought to investigate airway interferon production in response to rhinovirus infection in children who are asthmatic, atopic, or both and its correlation with the airway inflammatory profile. METHODS: Bronchial biopsy specimens and epithelial cells were obtained from 47 children (mean age, 5 ± 0.5 years) undergoing bronchoscopy. The study population included asthmatic children who were either atopic or nonatopic, atopic children without asthma, and children without atopy or asthma. Rhinovirus type 16 induction of IFN-λ and IFN-β mRNA and protein levels was assessed in bronchial epithelial cell cultures. The immunoinflammatory profile was evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry in bronchial biopsy specimens. RESULTS: Rhinovirus type 16-induced interferon production was significantly reduced in atopic asthmatic, nonatopic asthmatic, and atopic nonasthmatic children compared with that seen in nonatopic nonasthmatic children (all P < .05). Increased rhinovirus viral RNA levels paralleled this deficient interferon induction. Additionally, IFN-λ and IFN-β induction correlated inversely with the airway T(H)2 immunopathologic profile (eosinophilia and IL-4 positivity: P < .05 and r = -0.38 and P < .05 and r = -0.58, respectively) and with epithelial damage (P < .05 and r = -0.55). Furthermore, total serum IgE levels correlated negatively with rhinovirus-induced IFN-λ mRNA levels (P < .05 and r = -0.41) and positively with rhinovirus viral RNA levels (P < .05 and r = 0.44). CONCLUSIONS: Deficient interferon responses to rhinovirus infection are present in childhood in asthmatic subjects irrespective of their atopic status and in atopic patients without asthma. These findings suggest that deficient immune responses to viral infections are not limited to patients with atopic asthma but are present in those with other T(H)2-oriented conditions.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 09/2012; 130(6). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.08.005 · 11.25 Impact Factor
  • Source
    [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
    ABSTRACT: Last year's "Advances in pediatric asthma: moving forward" concluded the following: "Now is also the time to utilize information recorded in electronic medical records to develop innovative disease management plans that will track asthma over time and enable timely decisions on interventions in order to maintain control that can lead to disease remission and prevention." This year's summary will focus on recent advances in pediatric asthma on modifying disease activity, preventing asthma exacerbations, managing severe asthma, and risk factors for predicting and managing early asthma, as indicated in Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology publications in 2012. Recent reports continue to shed light on methods to improve asthma management through steps to assess disease activity, tools to standardize outcome measures in asthma, genetic markers that predict risk for asthma and appropriate treatment, and interventions that alter the early presentation of asthma to prevent progression. We are well on our way to creating a pathway around wellness in asthma care and also to use new tools to predict the risk for asthma and take steps to not only prevent asthma exacerbations but also to prevent the early manifestations of the disease and thus prevent its evolution to severe asthma.
    The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology 11/2012; 131(1). DOI:10.1016/j.jaci.2012.11.009 · 11.25 Impact Factor